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Introduction to Humanities Lecture 2c Alexander the Great & the Hellenistic World By David Kelsey.

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1 Introduction to Humanities Lecture 2c Alexander the Great & the Hellenistic World By David Kelsey

2 King Phillip II King Phillip II: – B.C. – Turned Macedonia into the chief power of the Greek world – In 338 B.C. Athens and Thebes fight King Phillip II and the Macedonians at the battle of Chaeronea and get crushed by the Macedonians Source: en.wikipedia.org

3 King Phillip II King Phillip II of Macedonia: – Phillip had spent 3 years in Thebes – Gains an admiration for Greek culture – Learned of the Greek military achievements – Phillip believes that if Macedonia is to be a strong state it needs a strong army – From the gold mines of Mount Pangaeus he is able to pay his soldiers and establish a standing professional army that could fight year round Source: ancientmacedonia.com

4 King Phillip’s army King Phillip’s army: – Creates military reforms that transform Macedonia into a military power – Infantrymen wore lighter armor, carried a smaller shield and sword and an 18 foot long spear – Infantry were supported by strong cavalry units – Hired engineers to design new catapults – Strengthened his relationship with the army by engaging in battle Victories: – Defeated the Illyrians to the west – Defeated Thrace to the north

5 King Phillips defeat of Greece King Phillip’s defeat of Greece: – In 338 B.C. King Phillip’s forces meet troops from Athens and Thebes in the battle of Chaeronea near Thebes. – The Macedonian army crushes the Greeks – The Greek states join in an alliance called the Corinthian league

6 The Corinthian League The Corinthian league: – All states took an oath: “I will abide by the peace, and I will not break the agreements with Phillip the Macedonian, nor will I take up arms with hostile intent against any one of those who abide by the oaths either by land or by sea.” – The Corinthian league creates an army and council with Phillip recognized as hegemon, or leader. – Phillip allowed the Greeks autonomy in domestic affairs but controls foreign affairs – Phillip insists that they cooperate with him against their common enemy, Persia… – Before Phillip could attack Persia he was assassinated in 336 B.C. – Phillip’s son Alexander takes over in 336 B.C.

7 Alexander the Great Alexander the Great: – B.C. – Ruled B.C. – Only 20 when he became King of Macedonia – Worshipped as a God and as Pharoah of Egypt – Tutored by Aristotle – In June of 323 B.C. Alexander died in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar II, in Babylon, at age 32. The theory is that he was poisoned, developed a fever and passed 14 days later… Source: en.wikipedia.org

8 Alexander the Great A brilliant military leader: Had superb tactical skills Planned troop formations and tactics appropriate to the landscape on which he was fighting Pushed his troops mercilessly often catching his opponent by surprise Lead the troops by example on the battlefield – didn’t hesitate to lead cavalry attacks into the enemy ranks Source: craved.com

9 Becoming King Alexander the Great: Becoming king – Came on military campaigns with his father – Given control of the cavalry at the battle of Chaeronea – After Phillips assassination, Alexander quickly asserted his power by smothering a rebellion in Greece in which he sacked the city of Thebes, – Awarded generalship of Greece in 335 B.C. – In 334 B.C. he invades Persia

10 Alexander’s invasion of Persia Alexander’s invasion of Persia: In Spring of 334 B.C. Alexander entered Asia Minor with an army of 37,000, roughly half Macedonians and half Greeks Cavalry numbered about 5,000 Architects, engineers, historians and scientists accompanied the army Source: urgenciologo.org

11 Alexander’s invasion of Persia The invasion of Persia: – Alexander first confronts the Persians at Granicus River in 334 B.C. – Major victory for Alexander – By the following spring all of the Greek cities of Asia minor are freed from Persian control – Darius III mobilizes a huge army to confront Alexander – They meet at the Battle of Issus – They actually met on a narrow field which cancelled the advantage of greater numbers, and results in a Macedonian victory

12 The Battle of Issus Source: wikipaintings.org Source: emersonkent.com

13 Conquering Egypt After the victory at Issus: Following his victory, Alexander, in 333 B.C., destroys the Persian port cities of Tyre and Gaza – After Tyre and Gaza were conquered, Alexander moves to Egypt who give up without a fight – By 332 B.C. Syria, Egypt and Palestine are under Macedonian control – Alexander in Egypt: Alexander takes the title of Pharaoh of Egypt and was called the ‘son of Amon’ He built the Greek administrative capital of Egypt at Alexandria

14 A Peace Treaty Darius offers peace: – In 331 B.C. Darius offers to Alexander all lands west of the Euphrates river – Alexander refuses Summer of 331 B.C.: – Alexander moves forward with his conquest into Mesopotamia – Wins a decisive battle at Gaugamela – Alexander’s men were clearly outnumbered but his heavy Calvary were able to break through the center of the Persian line, followed by his infantry – The battle was a rout but Darius escapes Source: warriors-hall-of-fame.blogspot.com

15 After the battle of Gaugamela After the battle of Gaugamela: – After winning the battle of Gaugamela, Alexander enters Babylon and then to the Persian capitals at Susa and Persepolis – There he acquires the Persian treasuries gaining vast amounts of gold and silver – 330 B.C. Darius gets killed by one of his own men Alexander takes the title and office of the Great King of the Persians – In 327 B.C. Alexander enters India In 326 B.C. at the battle of Hudaspes River, Alexander wins a brutally fought battle against Indian forces Alexander attempts to continue marching East to conquer more of India but his troops mutinied – Alexander and his army returns to Babylon – In 323 B.C. he dies in Babylon at the age of 32

16 Alexander’s campaign and empire Note Alexander’s campaign and in particular the major battles Note also the extent of the empire Source: whisperonwind.blogspot.com

17 The Hellenistic world The Hellenistic world: – By 301 B.C. Alexander’s empire had dissolved – 4 Hellenistic kingdoms emerge Macedonia under the Antigonid dynasty Syria under the Seleucids The Attalid kingdom of Pergamum Egypt under the Ptolomies – The Hellenestic kingdoms all fall to Roman power by the time Egypt falls in 30 B.C. Source: mesadebtsettlement.onlinecreditstrategies.c om

18 Important achievements of the Hellenistic world Achievements: The development of cities: – Alexander develops Alexandria in Egypt. – The largest city in the Mediterranean region by the 1 st century B.C. – It becomes one of the great cities of the Hellenistic world. It is the center for the production of oils, textiles, metalwork and glass. Its library and its importance as the cultural center of the Hellenistic world – Alexander develops at least 15 more Alexandria’s – Hellenistic kings likewise founded many new cities Source: people.ucalgary.ca

19 Important achievements of the Hellenistic world Trade expands: Trade routes: – through the Persian Gulf to the Tigris river then to Seleucia – from the Indian ocean to the Red Sea then to the Nile Source: go.hrw.com

20 More achievements More achievements: – Opportunities for women: Women took an active role in politics in Macedonia In Egypt, Ptolemaic kings would marry their sisters. Then both were worshipped as Gods. In Sparta women could own their own land – Education: The Greek gymnasium develops into a secondary school run by a gymnasiarch. The curriculum included music, physical exercise and literature. Gymnasiums develop throughout the Hellenistic world Image to the right: Cleopatra VII, last Pharaoh of Egypt Source of Image: islandcrisis.net

21 Important achievements of the Hellenistic world Achievements in literature and art: – Literature: The New comedy develops: the hero falls in love with a prostitute who turns out to be a long lost daughter of a neighbor Historical and Biographical works by Polybius ( B.C.): wrote 40 books narrating the history of the Mediterranean world from B.C. – Art: Sculpture moved away from the idealism of the 5 th century to more emotional and realistic art.

22 Statue of Drunken Old Woman Drunken Old Woman: – Created in the 3 rd century B.C. by Myron of Thebes – The sculptor wasn’t trying to capture ideal beauty as in Classical Greece – Instead, we see more realistic and emotional art in the Hellenistic period – Old and haggard, mired in poverty, she struggles just to go on living… – Artists in the Hellenistic period depicted unpleasant and deeper emotions. The artist responsible for the Drunk Old Woman touches on less than ideal issues such as old age, poverty, despair, and drunkenness. – The old woman’s drunkenness is in no way glorified like it might be in an earlier work of Greek art. The old woman is on the ground clutching at her jug of alcohol. She is desperate… Source: mostre.museogalileo.it

23 Venus de Milo Venus de Milo: – Created sometime between 130 and 100 B.C. – One of the most famous works of ancient Greek sculpture – Believed to depict Aphrodite, goddess of love and beauty – Made of marble – Thought to be created by Alexandros of Antioch – On permanent display now at the Louvre museum in Paris – Discovered in 1820 on the Greek island of Paris Source: en.wikipedia.org

24 Laocoön and His Sons Laocoön and His Sons: Shows the Trojan priest Laocoön and his sons being attacked by sea serpents Created by 3 greek sculptors from the island of Rhodes: Agesander, Athenodoros & Polydorus Created of marble sometime between 27 B.C. to 68 A.D. Excavated in Rome in 1506 Presently on display in the Vatican 6 feet, 7 inches tall The story of Laocoön: the subject of a trajedy by Sophocles, one version of the story goes that Laocoön was a trojan priest who was killed with both his sons after attempting to expose the ruse of the Trojan Horse by striking it with a spear. Source: en.wikipedia.org

25 The Winged Victory of Samothrace Winged victory at Samothrace: – 2 nd century B.C. marble sculpture of the Greek Goddess of victory, Nike – Created sometime between 200 and 190 B.C. – Since 1884 it has been displayed at the Louvre in Paris – Described as the greatest masterpiece of Hellenistic sculpture Source: en.wikipedia.org

26 Hellenistic achievements in the sciences Achievements in the Sciences: – Studied for the first time in their own right. Following Aristotle’s principle of systematic observation as the foundation for inductive generalizations about nature. – Euclid ( B.C.) writes Elements, a systematic organization of the fundamental principles of geometry – Archimedes ( B.C.) makes developments in the geometry of spheres and cylinders, establishes the mathematical constant pi and created the science of hydrostatics. Source of upper image, Euclid: healdsburg- freemason.com Source of lower image, Archimedes: optimalhealthbridge.com

27 Important achievements of the Hellenistic world Other achievements: – Medicine: Herophilus ( B.C.) and Erasistratus ( B.C.) made important strides in anatomy by the use of dissection and vivisection. Herophilus adds to the understanding of the brain, eye, liver, and reproductive and nervous systems Erasistratus makes discoveries in the process of digestion – The Egyptian religion of Isis was universal in Hellenistic times Isis was the God of women, marriage and children; the giver of civilization who had brought laws to all humankind Offered the promise of heaven Paved the way for Christianity…

28 Developments in Philosophy Epicureanism: – Founded by Epicurus ( B.C.) – A form of Hedonism as it states pleasure is the only intrinsic good – States though that pleasure is attained through tranquility and freedom from fear – But the way to attain such pleasure is to live modestly and to gain knowledge of the workings of the world and the limits of one's desires. To live in moderation… – More on it later… Image of Epicurus: bluejayblog.wordpress.com

29 The Rise of Stoicism Stoicism: – Founded by Zeno ( B.C.) – Taught Stoicism in Athens from 300 B.C. – Stoicism persists during the Roman empire – States that nature is fully determined by a rational order called the logos. – So whatever happens, happens of necessity or by fate – To be happy we must accept that we cannot change the order of the deterministic world. – To be happy we must not seek to have events happen as you want, but want them to happen as they do… – More on it later… Image of Zeno: milesmathis.com


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