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Identifying and Understanding. I am only responsible for what I say, not for what you understand.

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Presentation on theme: "Identifying and Understanding. I am only responsible for what I say, not for what you understand."— Presentation transcript:

1 Identifying and Understanding

2 I am only responsible for what I say, not for what you understand

3 As the material I’ll be presenting is for background purposes only, should the media have any interest or questions related to this presentation, please contact our media representative, whose contact information will be provided at the conclusion of the presentation



6 Myth #1: All Prostitutes Are Willing Participants US Department of Health & Human Services

7 Myth #2: Human Trafficking Is Crime Prosecuted Only at Federal Level US Department of Health & Human Services

8 Myth #3: All Participants Involved in Human Trafficking Are Criminals US Department of Health & Human Services

9 Myth #4 Child sex trafficking isn't happening in the U.S. Myths Associated with Human Trafficking Washington State Office of the Attorney General

10 Biggest Myth of All


12 A person is guilty human trafficking if he/she: Buys a person Sells a person Promotes the sale of a person Recruits a person to be sold Assists in the sale of a person Benefits in anyway off of the sale of a person Provides a place/location for the sale of a person NDCC 12.1-40-01

13 Class A Felony Up to 20 years in prison/$10000 Class AA Felony – if person being sold is under 18 Up to life in prison/$10,000 And of course……………….. Restitution NDCC 12.1-40

14 Promoting Prostitution (A Misdemeanor to C Felony) Facilitating Prostitution (A Misdemeanor to a C Felony depending on age of victim and other circumstances) Prostitution (Class B Misdemeanor) Hiring an individual to engage in sexual activity (Class B Misdemeanor) NDCC 12.1-29-01. Prostitution

15 Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 200o: “severe forms of trafficking in persons” include: Human is sold; Using Force, Fraud or Coercion; Or Victim under 18 no requirement to prove force, fraud or coercion if victim is a minor OR Assisting in selling or recruiting to be sold, any human Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 (P.L. 106-386)

16 TraffickingSmuggling Voluntary  Forced  Ends at Border  Someone is "moved"  Domestic  International  Smuggling or Human Trafficking?

17 Prostitution is: the act or practice of engaging in promiscuous sexual relations especially for money (Merriam- Webster) the practice or occupation of engaging in sexual activity with someone for payment. the unworthy or corrupt use of one’s talents for the sake of personal or financial gain. (Oxford)

18 Process Recruiting Or Harboring Or Moving Or Obtaining Or Maintaining a Person Means By force Or Fraud Or Coercion End For Involuntary Servitude Or Debt Bondage Or Slavery Or Sex Trade

19 Human trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery Victims of trafficking exploited for commercial sex or labor purposes Traffickers use force, fraud or coercion to achieve exploitation After drug dealing, human trafficking is tied with the illegal arms trade as the second largest criminal industry in the world, and it is the fastest growing. US Department of Health & Human Services


21 $31.6 Billion Estimated by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) as global profits made from forced laborers $33.9 Billion ILO estimates of world profits from all forced commercial sexual exploitation $5 Billion Estimate of income generated in Las Vegas alone 2.4% Or $3.3 Billion USD – the amount of Indonesia’s GDP generated by trafficking 14% Or $27 Billion USD – the amount of Thailand’s GDP generated by trafficking, 2013; Farley, n.d.; Farley et al., 2003


23 Poverty and desperation Abusive family environment Lack of economic opportunities Displacement from natural disasters, civil & political unrest Social perceptions and treatment of women & girls Department of Justice Canada;


25 Need to provide for family & self Hopes & dreams of a better life Demand for commercial sex & cheap labor Societal glamorization of “pimps & ho’s” Department of Justice Canada;


27 Labor Sex Trafficking Other


29 General Living on or near work premises Restricted/controlled communication & transportation Frequently moved Small living space/large number of occupants Lack of private space, personal possessions or financial records Limited knowledge about how to get around in a community FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Human Sex Trafficking, March 2011

30 Physical Indicators Injuries from beatings or weapons Signs of torture (e.g., cigarette burns) Brands or scarring, indicating ownership Signs of malnourishment FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Human Sex Trafficking, March 2011

31 Financial/Legal Indicators Someone else has possession of an individual's legal/travel documents Existing debt issues One attorney claiming to represent multiple illegal aliens detained at different locations Third party who insists on interpreting. Did the victim sign a contract? FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Human Sex Trafficking, March 2011

32 Captivity/confinement Frequently guarded Use and threat of violence Fear Use of threats against loved ones Shame/Embarrassment Self blame Debt bondage Trauma bond Language/social barriers Unaware of rights Lack of trust Isolation False promises Hopelessness Facilitated addiction Psychological trauma Lack of awareness Doesn’t see self as “victim” Normalization Belief that no one cares Fear of deportation This life may be better

33 Parents Social services Law enforcement Information received during investigation Rumor Anonymous tips Self-disclosure (rare)

34 What might HT look like in North Dakota?? May see high rates of Native American victims Overrepresented in Canadian prostitution studies Overrepresented in US studies on homelessness Prostitution arguably began with colonization May see bothDomestic and International victims May see sex and/or labor trafficking May see participants from local communities Deer, 2009; Farley, Lynne & Cotton, 2005

35 The Trafficker Pimp Family member – sibling, father, mother, male or female Significant other Anyone “John” Trick Buyer Perpetrator Offender “Bottoms” Victims now working for and with the trafficker to recruit new victims and enforce rules




39 Newspaper, Radio, Internet Advertisements Word of Mouth Use of Paid Recruiters Recruitment can be partially deceptive, fully deceptive, or by physical force. Most recruiters come from the victim’s home country.

40 Shared Hope International


42 View these girls as victims, NOT criminals! They have most likely been Sexually abused Physically abused Rape victims Substance abuser Do NOT identify as a “victim”

43 In addition: Chronic runaways Throw away kids Child prostitute Minimal parental involvement or protection History of abuse Adolescents in need of money Drug/alcohol abuse issues

44 Family ties or close proximity to the participants Offenders Bottoms “friends”/enemies – girls in school who “know” Fear of danger to family

45 Child Specific Indicators

46 Fear and anxiety Depression & mood changes Guilt and shame Cultural shock (victims from another country) PTSD Trauma bond with trafficker Signs of torture Helplessness, shame & humiliation, shock, denial and disbelief, disorientation & confusion, and anxiety disorders US Department of Health and Human Services

47 Child is living at the workplace or with the employer Child is living with multiple people in a cramped space Child attends school sporadically, not at all, or has a significant gap of schooling in the US Fear of government officials Significant fear of law enforcement and immigration May be related to the trafficker May be conditioned to refer to trafficker with a familial title, i.e. uncle, cousin, but is not related at all US Department of Health and Human Services

48 Hungry/malnourished Poor dental hygiene Sleeping and eating disorders STD’s HIV/AIDS, pelvic pain, rectal trauma, urinary difficulties from sex work Medical problems Chronic back, hearing, cardiovascular or respiratory problems from forced labor US Department of Health and Human Services


50 Living Conditions May live at home – juveniles may be w/parents or other family members Mental health/change in behavior Runaway for periods of time but returns May exhibit sexualized behavior

51 Control/Autonomy May suddenly have lots of “stuff” May not act entirely differently than before May have more money/possessions with no explanation of why May be hanging around with known or rumored traffickers/pimps

52 Other Comes back from runaway with hair and nails done Comes back from runaway with additional possessions “branded” or tattooed by trafficker or pimp Lots of inconsistencies in story of where she has been

53 Does it matter?



56 Added population Watford City – population 1,744………pre-oil Expected to reach 7,500 22% increase Students in Williston school – 480 new this year, 1200 expected next year 40,856 Estimated oil industry jobs in ND – not counting additional estimated 18,000 support jobs 50% Expected increase in state population over next 20 years in oil producing region Huff Post, October 2, 2013;

57 Sex Offenders Drugs Gang Activity Missing persons Increased crime rates

58 Supply and Demand

59 Where do they go?

60 Minor from the community Minor from another state Minor from another country and unaccompanied HHS Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Unaccompanied Refugee Minors (URM) program US Department of Health and Human Services

61 Reunification with family is encouraged Services include: Indirect financial support for housing, food, clothing, medical care & other necessities Intensive case management by social workers Independent living skills training Educational supports English language training Career/college counseling Mental health services Assistance adjusting immigration status Cultural activities Recreational opportunities Support for social integration Cultural/religious preservation US Department of Health and Human Services

62 Assisting agencies/NGO’s Lutheran Immigration Refugee Service United State Conference of Catholic Bishops Help identify eligible children Provide technical assistance in the reclassification process Determine appropriate placements for children among their national networks of affiliated agencies Conduct training, research & technical assistance on URM services US Department of Health and Human Services

63 North Dakota program assistance Lutheran Social Services ND – Bridging Refugee Youth & Children’s Services practices-program.cfm?docnum=0029 US Department of Health and Human Services

64 Victims will need to feel safe before being able to assist in the investigation and prosecution of offenders. Victims may be in danger as a result of a variety of factors Extent of the trafficking operation The trafficker’s perception of how damaging a victim’s testimony may be The trafficker’s propensity to use violence It may be best to remove them from the situation immediately. US Department of Health and Human Services

65 No research No hard data No “proof”…………………….BUT………….. Increased risk Increased reports Increased awareness


67 Human trafficking is a growing problem in the United States Human trafficking has been reported in all 50 states, including THIS one There are laws to hold traffickers accountable Victims have multiple reasons to choose not to self- report and very few reasons to want to help an investigation We can all help understand the dynamics of HT and be a part of a solution based response


69 Kyle Loven FBI – Minneapolis Division 763-569-8000

70 Braveheart, M. Y. (2011). Welcome to Takini's Historical Trauma. Retrieved February 6, 2012, from Historical Trauma: Braveheart, M. Y., Chase, J., Elkins, J., & Altschul, D. B. (2011). Historical trauma among indigenous peoples of the Americas: Concepts, research, and clinical considerations. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 282-290. doi: 10.1080/02791072.2011.628913. Trafficking in Persons; What is Human Trafficking? (2013). Retrieved March 19, 2013 from Department of Justice Canada: Deer, S. (2010). Relocation revisited: Sex trafficking of Native women in the United States. William Mitchell Law Review, 621-683 Farley, M. (n.d.). Human Trafficking and Prostitution. Washington, District of Columbia, US: Psychologists for Social Responsibility. Farley, M., Cotton, A., Lynne, J., Zumbeck, S., Spiwak, F., Reyes, M. E., et al. (2003). Prostitution and trafficking in nine countries: An update on violence and posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Trauma Practice, 33-74. Farley, M., Lynne, J., & Cotton, A. J. (2005). Prostitution in Vancouver: Violence and the colonization of First Nations women. Transcultural Psychiatry, 242-271. Farley, M., Matthews, N., Deer, S., Lopez, G., Stark, C., & Hudon, E. (2011). Garden of truth: The prostitution and trafficking of Native women in Minnesota. St. Paul: Minnesota Indian Women’s Sexual Assault Coalition and Prostitution Research & Education. International Association of Chiefs of Police LaFramboise, T. D., Choney, S. B., James, A., & Running Wolf, P.R. (1995). American Indian women and psychology. In H. Landrine (Ed.),

71 Bringing cultural diversity to feminist psychology: Theory, research and practice (pp. 197-239). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. National Institute of Justice Retrieved March 27, 2012 Office of Crime Victims Advocacy. (2004). Human trafficking: Present day slavery. State of Washington. Pierce, A. (. (2009). Shattered hearts: The commercial sexual exploitation of American Indian women and girls in Minnesota. Minneapolis: Minnesota Indian Women's Resource Center. Rand, A. (2009). It can't happen in my backyard: The commercial sexual exploitation of girls in the United States. Child & Youth Services, 138-156. DOI: 10.1080/0145935X.2009.524480. Reid, J. A. (2010). Doors wide shut: Barriers to the successful delivery of victim services for domestically trafficked minors in a southern U.S. metropolitan area. Women & Criminal Justice, 147-166. DOI: 10.1080/0897445100641206. Sethi, A. (2007). Domestic sex trafficking of Aboriginal girls in Canada: Issues and implications. First Peoples Child & Family Review, 57-71 What We Do. (2012). Retrieved April 8, 2012, from Shared Hope International: Smith, L. A., Healy Vardaman, S., & Snow, M. A. (2009). The National Report on Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking. Arlington: Shared Hope International. US Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.). Unaccompanied Children's Services. Retrieved 06 13, 2013, from Office of Refugee Resettlement; An Office of the Administration for Children & Families: Walker-Rodriguez, A., & Hill, R. (2011). Human Sex Trafficking. Washington: Federal Bureau of Investigation. Weaver, H. N. (1998). Indigenous people in a multicultural society: Unique issues for human services. Social Work, 203-211.

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