Presentation on theme: "Literary Elements and Summer Reading"— Presentation transcript:
1Literary Elements and Summer Reading The Catcher in the Ryeby J.D. Salinger
2Originally published in July 1951, The Catcher in the Rye was a book-of-the-month club selection and an immediate bestseller.
3Setting Where and when does the story take place? The action of the novel takes place in 1949 at two locations. The first seven chapters are set at Pencey Prep, a private school for boys in eastern Pennsylvania. Then Holden takes a train to New York City and the rest of the story takes place in Manhattan.
4Characters Protagonist the leading character or a major character in a drama, movie, novel, or other fictional textIn TCITR?Antagonista person who actively opposes or is hostile to someone or something; an adversaryIn TCITR?
5Conflict competitive or opposing action: antagonistic state Person vs. Himself/HerselfSocietyNatureGod/supernatural/fatetechnology/machine
6What is the conflict in The Catcher in the Rye? Person vs. societyPerson vs. himselfSalinger used Valley Forge Military Academy as the model for Pencey Prep. Salingerhimself was a WWII veteran who took part in D-Day. An alum, evidence suggests heactually enjoyed his time at Valley Forge and was a big fan of the military – until hisservice in WWII.
7Narrative Voice Who tells the story and how do they tell it? Jerome David Salinger, b. New York City,Jan. 1, January 27, 2010
81st Person“I” singular or “we” plural - from narrator’s point of view – biased/subjective2nd Person“you” singular and plural - presentational/accusatory3rd Person“he” “she” “it” singular or “they” plural – omniscient, all knowing, objective
9Narrative voice in The Catcher in the Rye? Sep. 15, 1961
10Stuff to pay attention to in all the literature we read this year… ThemesLarge issues that are central to the novel and/or play (example from TCITR?)Motifsreoccurring symbols or images that mean something deeper (example from TCITR?)
11Plot Structure (5 elements of a story) ExpositionRising ActionClimaxFalling ActionResolution
12Irony (3 kinds) Situational irony a discrepancy between an expected result and the actual result(s)Verbal ironywhen an author says one thing but means or implies another
13Dramatic ironywhen an audience perceives something that a character in the literature is not aware ofIrony in TCITR?
14Characters Holden Caulfield Protagonist Antagonist? Tells lies Having a nervous breakdown?Mr. & Mrs. CaulfieldHolden’s parents(inattentive?)D.B. CaulfieldHolden's older brother - used to be a "real writer" but now prostitutes himself in Hollywood. He wrote a book of short stories called The Secret Goldfish.
15Mr. SpencerHolden's history teacher at Pencey. In Chapter 2, Holden goes to his house for a goodbye visit. Mr. Spencer has the flu. He reads Holden's abominable essay answer about the Egyptians aloud. He questions Holden about his goals in life and his feelings about getting expelled from Pencey.StradlaterHolden's roommate at PenceyAckleyHolden's dirty next door dormmate at PenceyFitzgeraldex-date of Stradlater - Stradlater refers to her as "that pig.”
16Jane GallagherHolden's great love and almost girlfriend. She and Holden used to play checkers and hold hands a lot – meaningful connection.Mr. CadahyJane Gallagher's "booze hound" step father. He was a "skinny guy with hairy legs.” A supposed playwright, he only drank, listened to mystery shows, and walked around at home with no clothes on. Holden thinks he abused Jane.
17Allie CaulfieldHolden's nice and brilliant red-headed brother - died of leukemia. Only friend in the world?Mrs. MorrowSexy, 40 to 45-year old mother of Pencey classmate Ernest. She gets on the train at Trenton, leaves her bags in the aisle and sits next to Holden. She's wearing orchids. She notices the Pencey sticker on Holden's luggage and starts a conversation with him. After telling her some lies about how great Ernest is, Holden says he's going home early because he has to have a brain tumor removed.
18Phoebe CaulfieldHolden's smart and sweet kid sisterSally HayesHolden's good looking ex. Holden calls her when he arrives in NYC – shallow connection.Mrs. HayesSally Hayes' mother She told Sally that Holden was "wild" and "had no direction.” Holden won't call Sally from Penn Station because Mrs. Hayes knows his mother.
19Faith CavendishFormer burlesque stripper. She resides at the Stanford Arms Hotel on 65th and Broadway. She's supposed to be an easy date. Holden calls her, but she won't meet him because she says it's too late and her roommate's sick. She suggests meeting the next day, but Holden backs out.Marty, Laverne, Bernice KrebsGirls in the Lavender Room. These are moronic, giggling, movie-star-obsessed, out of towners. Bernice is dumb, blonde, relatively good looking, and a great dancer. The other two are ugly and Holden finds them uninteresting.
20Sunny Spooky prostitute Maurice Lillian SimmonsD.B.'s ex-girlfriend with very "big knockers." Holden runs into her and her date at the Wicker Bar.Two nunsHolden meets them at a diner. Gives them money – meaningful connection?SunnySpooky prostituteMauriceSunny's pimp and the elevator guy at the Edmont. He swindles Holden out of $5 and beats him up.
21Little boy walking in street Sang "If a body catch a body..." Seeing and hearing him made Holden feel less depressed.Little girl in parkSame age as Phoebe. Holden asked her if she knew Phoebe and helped her tighten her skates.
22Mr. AntoliniHolden's heavy-drinking ex-English teacher at Elkton Hills. Holden goes to Mr. Antolini's apartment to spend the night. Holden wakes up in the middle of the night to find Mr. Antolini petting him on the head. Holden finds it too "perverty" and quickly leaves.Lillian AntoliniMr. Antolini's wife. She's a lot older than Mr. Antolini. They "kiss a lot in public.”
23ThemesAlienation as Self-Protection: interactions with others overwhelm and confuse Holden, so his cynical sense of superiority serves as a type of self-protection, BUT alienation causes his pain. He is desperate for human contact and love. He is afraid of change, growing up, and maturing.
24Painfulness of growing up: instead of acknowledging that adulthood scares him, he invents a fantasy that the adult world is superficial and hypocritical (phoniness). Childhood is innocence, curiosity, and honesty.
25Phoniness of the Adult World: superficial, pretentious, shallow – not entirely inaccurate (insightful narrator) BUT Holden is phony too. He is a compulsive liar, deceitful, and cruel.
26Motifs/Symbols Holden’s red hunting hat One of the most recognizable symbols from twentieth-century American literature. A symbol of his uniqueness and individuality. It shows that Holden desires to be different from everyone. The hat mirrors the central conflict in the book: Holden’s need for isolation versus his need for companionship.
27The Museum of Natural History Holden tells us the symbolic meaning of the museum’s displays: they appeal to him because they are frozen and unchanging. The museum represents the world Holden wishes he could live in: a world where nothing ever changes.
28Ducks in Central Park Lagoon The ducks are symbolic in several ways. Their perseverance in the face of an inhospitable environment resonates with Holden’s understanding of his own situation. In addition, the ducks prove that some vanishings are only temporary. Traumatized and made acutely aware of the fragility of life by his brother Allie’s death, Holden is terrified by the idea of change and disappearance. The ducks vanish every winter, but they return every spring.
29The “Catcher in the Rye” First appears when a kid Holden admires for walking in the street rather than on the sidewalk is singing the Robert Burns song “Comin’ Thro’ the Rye.” When Phoebe asks Holden what he wants to do with his life, he replies with his image, from the song, of a “catcher in the rye.” Holden imagines a field of rye perched high on a cliff, full of children romping and playing. He says he would like to protect the children from falling off the edge of the cliff by “catching” them. As Phoebe points out, Holden has misheard the lyric. He thinks the line is “If a body catch a body comin’ through the rye,” but the actual lyric is “If a body meet a body, coming through the rye.”The song “Comin’ Thro’ the Rye” asks if it is wrong for two people to have a romantic encounter out in the fields, away from the public eye, even if they don’t plan to have a commitment to one another. The word Holden substitutes for “meet” is “catch.” Holden wants to catch children before they fall out of innocence into knowledge of the adult world.
30CensorshipIt seems that the mere effort of trying to censor something compels others to actively seek it out. Perhaps this is one aspect of Catcher's enduring success.Catcher is undoubtedly one of the most controversial literary works of all time. The American Library Association (ALA) reports that the novel holds the #10 spot as one of "The 100 Most Frequently Challenged Books of ".
31According to the ALA and the University of Pennsylvania, these works have either been banned or have sparked some kind of continuing controversy in the United States.Rudolfo Anaya: Bless Me, UltimaGeorge Eliot: Silas MarnerWilliam Golding: Lord of the FliesDaniel Keyes: Flowers for AlgernonMartin Hanford: Where's Waldo?Aldous Huxley: Brave New WorldJames Joyce: UlyssesMadeline L'Engle: A Wrinkle in TimeD.H. Lawrence: Lady Chatterly's LoverHarper Lee: To Kill a MockingbirdWilliam Shakespeare: Merchant of VeniceShel Silverstein: Where the Sidewalk EndsJohn Steinbeck: Of Mice and MenMark Twain: Huckleberry Finn and The Adventures of Tom SawyerKurt Vonnegut: Slaughterhouse FiveAlice Walker: The Color Purple