Presentation on theme: "Using Your Voice Notes for Sept. 3rd To produce sound, the lungs, mouth and throat work together to do three things… 1.Generate sound 2.Resonate sound."— Presentation transcript:
To produce sound, the lungs, mouth and throat work together to do three things… 1.Generate sound 2.Resonate sound 3.Articulate sound
The Respiration Cycle Inhalation The diaphragm contracts, drawing in air through the mouth/nose and down the throat Air passes through the larynx and trachea, and into the lungs Exhalation As the diaphragm relaxes, the air is pushed back up through the trachea and larynx and out the nose/throat A valve in the larynx opens/closes during the cycle to allow food and drink to go the right way. During quiet breathing the vocal chords remain open so that air can move freely in and out of the lungs. While eating/drinking, the vocal folds close off the trachea, protecting you from choking
Using Respiration when Speaking A burst of air is sent from the lungs up the larynx to get your vocal folds vibrating (try saying “ah” to feel this) You inhale more swiftly and deeply when you speak…and you prolong airflow as you exhale Muscles in the chest wall contract to counteract the force of the relaxing diaphragm as you exhale, so that not all the air leaves at once, allowing you to speak When you start to run out of air, another set of muscles begins to contract, forcing out a bit more air, allowing you to continue speech…you control air flow, so you don’t gulp air as you speak
The Resonators The resonators of sound for speech in the human body are: The bones in the chest, neck and head The cavities (partially enclosed areas) of the throat, nose and mouth Note: The larger the cavity, the lower the sound With your lips barely touching, hum m-m-m-m-m-m-m-m…and feel the bones in your head vibrate Touch the bridge of your nose while humming ng-ng-ng-ng-ng
There are three main cavities in the human body. 1.THE THROAT Also known as the pharyngeal cavity, it is very flexible, and differs in size and wall thickness from person to person 2.THE NOSE Also known as the nasal cavity, it has a direct impact on the three nasal sound you can make the (m) sound the (n) sound the (ng) sound…as in “sing” To a certain extent, the nasal cavity affects the sound of all speech. 3.THE MOUTH Also known as the oral cavity, it is the easiest to alter, simply by changing the shape of its opening by moving the tongue, lips and jaw.
ARTICULATION is the shaping of speech sounds into recognizable oral symbols that go together to make up a word. Vowel Sounds Are formed by changing the size of the oral cavity and the shape of the opening Consonant Sounds Are formed in three ways: By moving the tongue to various parts of the mouth By pointing, arching, or flattening the tongue By moving and shaping the lips
A speaker who produces clear consonants and distinct vowels is said to have good articulation A speaker who clearly combines precisely articulated sounds into distinct words is said to have good pronunciation
PITCH is the highness or lowness of the sound you make Key is the average pitch at which you speak Find your optimum pitch Melody refers to the variations in pitch that help to give expression to your voice Avoid sounding montone! Range is the spread between the lowest and the highest notes you can speak comfortably Again…avoid monotony! Inflection is the upward or downward glide of your pitch as you speak Rising inflections communicate doubt or surprise; Falling inflections communicate certainty or finality A step is an abrupt change in pitch
Volume is the loudness or intensity of sound To increase loudness, you have to increase the pressure behind the column of air being forced up from the lungs through the vocal folds This pressure needs to come from your chest and stomach, not your neck and throat! Rate is the speed at which you talk Normal speed is from 120 to about 160 words per minute
Quality is the tone of your voice…your personal quality is what makes your voice different from others Common problems include: 1.Nasalitytoo much nasal resonance 2.Breathiness too much unvoiced air escaping through the vocal folds 3.Harshness speaking with too much tension in the larynx area 4.Hoarseness speaking with too much tension for too long in the larynx area
Correcting Articulation Problems Substituting one sound for another da for the radder for rather, dose for those t for th Tink for think, anyting for anything ks for s Excape for escape short i for short e git for get, pin for pen Leaving Out a Sound (called omission) dropping the d wount for wouldn’t, frien for friend dropping the t mos for most, jus for just, bes for best dropping the l hep for help, woof for wolf, sauve for solve dropping the e along with a consonant sound probly for probably, member for remember
Adding an Extra Sound Adding t in words in words where t is Silent soften for sofen, hasten for hasen Adding short e sound filum for film, childaren for children Adding r to ends of words idear for idea, drawr, draw Adding sound to the beginning of words ahold for hold, especial for special Transposing Sounds Ks for sk aks for ask Erd for red hunderd for hundred Per for pre perscribe for prescribe, perfer for prefer Ern for ren, or ren for ern childern for children, modren for modern
Assignment It’s time to write your first speech! For next class, write a 2-minute introduction to yourself. The information you provide should focus solely on who you are now…and perhaps a little about what you hope to become. Please try to keep in mind all we have discussed up to this point concerning what makes your voice work best when speaking in public!