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Module 3: Environmental Objectives, Programme of Measures, Economic Analysis, Exemptions An Important Measure applied for Agricultural and Animal Waste.

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Presentation on theme: "Module 3: Environmental Objectives, Programme of Measures, Economic Analysis, Exemptions An Important Measure applied for Agricultural and Animal Waste."— Presentation transcript:

1 Module 3: Environmental Objectives, Programme of Measures, Economic Analysis, Exemptions An Important Measure applied for Agricultural and Animal Waste Management Michael Jackman- Chemistry Expert Afyon, 2015

2 Construction of Anaerobic Digestors The systems are relatively easy to establish but the actual mechanisms are complex. In 1907, in Germany, a patent was issued for the Imhoff tank, an early form of anaerobic digester for treating waste-waterImhoff tank

3 Biological Mechanisms The process has to take place in the absence of air. It is a biological process using a range of bacteria There are four important types of bacteria for each which need to work together sequentially. 1) Bacterial hydrolysis of the input materials in order to break down insoluble organic polymers such as carbohydrates and make them available for other bacteria. acterialorganic polymerscarbohydrates 2) Acidogenic bacteria then convert thesugars and amino acids into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, ammonia, and organic acids.Acidogenic bacteriasugarsamino acidshydrogenammoniaorganic acids

4 Biological Mechanisms 3) Acetogenic bacteria then convert these resulting organic acids into acetic acid, along with additional ammonia, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide.acetic acid 4) Methanogen bacteria, finally convert these products to methane and carbon dioxide

5 Biological Mechanisms Different species of bacteria are have different optimum temperature ranges and digestion times Psyrophilic bacteria- temperatures >10°C - digestion times- > 100 days Mesophilic bacteria temperatures >30°C - digestion times- > 50 days Thermophilic bacteria temperatures >55°C -- digestion times- > 10 days So temperature control is important

6 EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENTS Historically, experience of small on-farm AD is mixed; Many plants built in the 1970s/early 1980s closed due to various operational problems. This situation is improving. Developments since the late 1980s to simplify design, improve operation and decrease costs are showing great promise. The EU are keen to promote this.

7 EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENTS Farm digester Electrical Generator Basic features are: 1) Predominantly mesophilic systems 2) Residence times typically days 3) On-farm applications usually environmentally driven 3) Opportunities to produce heat and electricity 4) Opportunities for fibre production Overview Case Study Examples Lessons Learnt Nine Key Components of an EWERS

8 Biological Mechanisms Direct or indirect use of Biogas

9 Biological Mechanisms Waste Water If there is a possibility of the water being shed into surface water bodies or into ground water further treatment of the wastewater will be required. This treatment will typically be an oxidation stage where air is passed through the water e.g. trickle filters and then to ideally to controlled wetlands Large Sewage Digestor (Denmark)

10 Gas collectors 1) Overview Case Study Examples Lessons Learnt Nine Key Components of an EWERS Gas collectors Northern Ireland Advanced system in Germany (Flare)

11 Disinfection Process of AD Another benefit of AD is that it kills pathogenic bacteria and parasitic Ova, e,g.: Salmonela Psyrophilic fermentation- temperatures >10°C -100% Fatality 44 days Mesophilic fermentation- temperatures >30°C - 100% Fatality 7 days Thermophilic fermentation- temperatures >55°C 100% Fatality 2 days Schistosoma Ova Psyrophilic fermentation- temperatures >10°C -100% Fatality 30 days Mesophilic fermentation- temperatures >30°C - 100% Fatality 10 days Thermophilic fermentation- temperatures >55°C 100% Fatality 1 day

12 EU Commitment The European Commission White Paper on Renewable Sources of Energy has set a target to increase the contribution of renewable energy supply from 6% to 12% between 1995 and Biomass has been targeted to increase from 44.8 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe) to 135Mtoe over the same time period.

13 European Farm Biogas Production 1) Overview Case Study Examples Lessons Learnt Nine Key Components of an EWERS

14 European Farm Biogas Production Overview Case Study Examples Lessons Learnt Nine Key Components of an EWERS

15 Importance of Livestock Bi-Products as an Energy Resource It is estimated that the total energy content of landfill gas and digestible agricultural wastes in the EU exceeds 80 Mtoe. The contribution that could be made by biogas exploitation from livestock production, agro-industrial effluents, sewage treatment and landfill by 2010 is estimated to 15 Mtoe). Livestock manure contributes with more than 90% of the total digestible waste/biomass resources in Europe

16 Livestock Bi-Products as an Energy Resource If the gas production per day will approximately correspond to the following average values: · 1 kg cattle dung 40 litre biogas · 1 kg buffalo dung 30 litre biogas · 1 kg pig dung 60 litre biogas 1 kg chicken droppings 70 litre biogas Or 1,5 litres biogas per day will be produced by per 1 kg live livestock weight

17 Digestate Components: Solid remnants of the original input material to the digesters that the microbes cannot use. The mineralised remains of the dead bacteria from within the digesters. Digestate can come in three forms; fibrous, liquor or a sludge-based combination of the two. Overview Case Study Examples Lessons Learnt Nine Key Components of an EWERS

18 Digester residue The acidogenic digestate is a stable organic material comprised largely of lignin and cellulose, but also of a variety of mineral components in a matrix of dead bacterial cells; The material can resembles domestic compost and can be used as compost or to make low grade building products such as fibreboard Overview Case Study Examples Lessons Learnt Nine Key Components of an EWERS

19 Waste Water The final output from is a liquid. This effluent is from the moisture content of the original waste but also includes water produced from he microbial reactions in the digestion systems. This effluent may be released from the dewatering of the digestate or may be separate from the digestate. This wastewater will have elevated levels of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Which means it has high nutrient content for irrigation only.biochemical oxygen demandchemical oxygen demand The liquid bi-product is rich in nutrients and can be used as a fertiliser Overview Case Study Examples Lessons Learnt Nine Key Components of an EWERS

20 Waste Water If there is a possibility of the water being shed into surface water bodies or into ground water further treatment of the wastewater will be required. This treatment will typically be an oxidation stage where air is passed through the water e.g. trickle filters and then to ideally to controlled wetlands. Overview Case Study Examples Lessons Learnt Nine Key Components of an EWERS

21 Integrated System This system is complementary, as the control of the livestock and the treatment of the associated manure is used to produce biogas and also to improve the quality of effluent wastewater for irrigation/ fertiliser but has additional positive effects: (i) the reduction of non-point pollution, (ii) the increase control of the supply of fertiliser for irrigation. (iii) the production of an alternative sustainable energy source..

22 Irrigation Feed Waste AD - Biogas Fertiliser water Integrated approach

23 Finally.. Therefore, by the correct application and optimisation of such systems, they can produce win-win situations, which are especially important in the current global climate change Çok teşekkür ederim


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