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HYDRO-LOOK FOR THE ARABIC - ISRAELI CONFLICT Dr.Sahar Ahmed Haridy Cairo University, Faculty of Engineering, Hydraulics and Irrigartion Department.

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Presentation on theme: "HYDRO-LOOK FOR THE ARABIC - ISRAELI CONFLICT Dr.Sahar Ahmed Haridy Cairo University, Faculty of Engineering, Hydraulics and Irrigartion Department."— Presentation transcript:

1 HYDRO-LOOK FOR THE ARABIC - ISRAELI CONFLICT Dr.Sahar Ahmed Haridy Cairo University, Faculty of Engineering, Hydraulics and Irrigartion Department

2 HYDRO-LOOK FOR THE ARABIC - ISRAELI CONFLICT Sahar HARIDY 9 of March 2006 Jerusalem Borders Settlements Refugees Shared water resources The Five High Priority Issues in the Arab – Israeli Conflict:

3 HYDRO-LOOK FOR THE ARABIC - ISRAELI CONFLICT Sahar HARIDY 9 of March 2006 The situation now in the Arab States Region The Situation Now in the Arab States Region Out of the 20 countries 11 already are using more than half of their water resources. Libya, The Arabian Peninsula and Oman are using 100 %. The rainy season is short, between 6-8 months a year, and rainfall varies between mm annually, which is insufficient for basic agriculture which requires at least 400 mm of regular rainfall.

4 HYDRO-LOOK FOR THE ARABIC - ISRAELI CONFLICT Sahar HARIDY 9 of March 2006 The situation in 2025

5 HYDRO-LOOK FOR THE ARABIC - ISRAELI CONFLICT Sahar HARIDY 9 of March 2006 Topography of Palestine

6 HYDRO-LOOK FOR THE ARABIC - ISRAELI CONFLICT Sahar HARIDY 9 of March 2006 Palestine Climate Mediterranean Climate (dry summer, wet winter) 70 % of the total annual rainfall in December, January and February 75% of the rain are lost through evaporation and runoff Most of the rain are in the coastal and on the mountain plain

7 HYDRO-LOOK FOR THE ARABIC - ISRAELI CONFLICT Sahar HARIDY 9 of March 2006 Water Resources Surface water : Jordan River Basin Ground water: Coastal Aquifer Mountain Aquifer

8 HYDRO-LOOK FOR THE ARABIC - ISRAELI CONFLICT Sahar HARIDY 9 of March 2006 Jordan River Basin 360 kms long Catchment area km 2. Average annual flow mcm. (Abu Faris 1992) It satisfies 50% of Israel and Jordan water demand and 5% of Lebanon and Syria

9 HYDRO-LOOK FOR THE ARABIC - ISRAELI CONFLICT Sahar HARIDY 9 of March 2006 MOUNTAIN AQUIFER The annual renewable water ranges from 600 mcm to 650 mcm. High quality water from depth 200 –600 meters. It provides about 50% of Israel’s drinking water.

10 HYDRO-LOOK FOR THE ARABIC - ISRAELI CONFLICT Sahar HARIDY 9 of March 2006 COASTAL AQUIFER Its annual safe yield mcm. (Taha,1990). Around wells pumping water from depth meters. Since 1967, the aquifer has been overpumped by rate mcm. (Walid and Isaac,1995). Bad water quality.

11 HYDRO-LOOK FOR THE ARABIC - ISRAELI CONFLICT Sahar HARIDY 9 of March 2006 Water Resources Allocation (Jordan River Basin) Modified after USIS., 1991.

12 HYDRO-LOOK FOR THE ARABIC - ISRAELI CONFLICT Sahar HARIDY 9 of March 2006 Water Resources Allocation Applied Research Institute-Jerusalem.

13 HYDRO-LOOK FOR THE ARABIC - ISRAELI CONFLICT Sahar HARIDY 9 of March 2006 Water Resources Allocation Applied Research Institute-Jerusalem. Total amount excluding Settler: I 1700 mcm/year P 219 mcm/year

14 HYDRO-LOOK FOR THE ARABIC - ISRAELI CONFLICT Sahar HARIDY 9 of March 2006 Water Resources Allocation  3 million Palestinians and 6 million Israelis live in historical Palestine.  Area: 78 percent Israel, 22 percent Palestinians.  The Palestinians consume only about two percent of water supply.  Israel has taken physical control over essentially all water facilities serving the Palestinians(85% of all the available water).

15 HYDRO-LOOK FOR THE ARABIC - ISRAELI CONFLICT Sahar HARIDY 9 of March 2006 Water Resources Allocation  Palestine are denied all access to the Jordan River's water to the east, and to most productive zones in the Westenr aquifer basin to the west.  The U.N. reports that a Palestinian of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip consumes less than one-half the quantity of water for domestic use as an Israeli inhabitant of a settlement in the occupied territories  The diversion of the waters from Lake Tiberias for the purpose feeding the Israeli National Water Carrier (Mekeroth).

16 HYDRO-LOOK FOR THE ARABIC - ISRAELI CONFLICT Sahar HARIDY 9 of March 2006 Water Resources Allocation  In the West Bank, Military Orders issued by the Israeli occupation authorities have effectively prohibited Palestinians from digging wells and improving their water resources since 1967, while at the same time wells have been dug by Israelis straight into the water resources underneath these wells, lowering the water level.  Palestinians pay high prices for the water they receive from the Mekeroth, about $1.20 per m³, compared to the $0.40 per m³ Israelis pay for domestic use and $0.16 per m³ for agriculture.

17 HYDRO-LOOK FOR THE ARABIC - ISRAELI CONFLICT Sahar HARIDY 9 of March 2006 WATER RESOURCES ALLOCATION  For example, 75 percent of water resources have been devoted to agriculture in Israel, a sectoral area that makes up less than 6 percent  Agricultural water use (as % of total consumption)  Total annual quantity of water used for irrigation (10 6 m³)  Population 1990 (millions) Applied Research Institute-Jerusalem

18 HYDRO-LOOK FOR THE ARABIC - ISRAELI CONFLICT Sahar HARIDY 9 of March 2006 Processes of Water Pollution  Caused by the following: over-pumping, sewage infiltration, leachate from waste piles, industrial spills and wastes, agricultural chemicals, fuel leakages, construction, transportation and urbanization.  Salinization by salt water intrusion, which eliminates at least 10 million m³ per year annually, thus reducing the availability of fresh water sources. As an example, nearly 20% of the coastal aquifer cannot be utilized due to salinity. · The increase  The increase

19 HYDRO-LOOK FOR THE ARABIC - ISRAELI CONFLICT Sahar HARIDY 9 of March 2006 Processes of Water Pollution Jung et al., 2000

20 HYDRO-LOOK FOR THE ARABIC - ISRAELI CONFLICT Sahar HARIDY 9 of March 2006 The Israeli Dreams  Large scale desalinization projects, often linked with hydroelectric power generation:  Red Sea Dead Sea conduit  Mediterranean Dead Sea conduit  Water diversion projects:  from Lebanon's Litani River to the Jordan headwaters  from the Nile to Israel or Gaza, with a pipeline going underneath the Suez Canal  Water conveyance projects:  oil tanker conveyance of Turkish or Yugoslavian waters  Conveyance of Turkish or Norwegian waters in enormous balloon like "medusa bags"

21 HYDRO-LOOK FOR THE ARABIC - ISRAELI CONFLICT Sahar HARIDY 9 of March 2006

22 HYDRO-LOOK FOR THE ARABIC - ISRAELI CONFLICT Sahar HARIDY 9 of March 2006 MOUNTAIN AQUIFER

23 HYDRO-LOOK FOR THE ARABIC - ISRAELI CONFLICT Sahar HARIDY 9 of March 2006 Jordan River Basin


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