Presentation on theme: "I Community Pediatrics: Welfare Reform and the Health of Women and Children Wendy Chavkin, MD, MPH * Paul H. Wise, MD, MPH † Diana Romero, PhD, MA * Barbara."— Presentation transcript:
I Community Pediatrics: Welfare Reform and the Health of Women and Children Wendy Chavkin, MD, MPH * Paul H. Wise, MD, MPH † Diana Romero, PhD, MA * Barbara Pastrana Pahud, MD * * Department of Population and Family Health, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University † Department of Pediatrics, Boston University School of Medicine
History of Welfare in the US: I History of Welfare in the US: I 1935: Social Security Act -- Aid to Dependent Children, like Mother’s Pensions, promoted concept that maternal employment negatively affected child development and that ‘deserving’ women belonged in the home.1935: Social Security Act -- Aid to Dependent Children, like Mother’s Pensions, promoted concept that maternal employment negatively affected child development and that ‘deserving’ women belonged in the home. 1962: Aid to Families with Dependent Children - goals were to strengthen family life and foster self-sufficiency.1962: Aid to Families with Dependent Children - goals were to strengthen family life and foster self-sufficiency. 1967: expanding welfare rolls and rising numbers of unwed mothers receiving aid led to ‘welfare crisis’.1967: expanding welfare rolls and rising numbers of unwed mothers receiving aid led to ‘welfare crisis’. Abramovitz, M. Regulating the Lives of Women, South End Press, 1988.
History of Welfare in the US: II 1987-1995: Most states had received waivers1987-1995: Most states had received waivers 1996: PRWORA passed (P.L. 104-193)1996: PRWORA passed (P.L. 104-193) –AFDC TANF –Entitlement block grants with time limits –Devolution to states –Separation from Medicaid, food stamps –Emphasis on work –Family life obligations 1997: Creation of CHIP1997: Creation of CHIP
1996 Welfare Reform: Congress’ Findings “The Congress makes the following findings: 1. Marriage is the foundation of a successful society. 2. Marriage is an essential institution of a successful society which promotes the interests of children. 3. Promotion of responsible fatherhood and motherhood is integral to successful child rearing and the well-being of children.” Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, Pub L No. 104-193 (1996).
1996 Welfare Reform: Purpose “Increase the flexibility of states in operating a program designed to: 1. Provide assistance to needy families so that children could be cared for in their own homes or in the homes of relatives 2. End dependence of needy parents on government benefits by promoting job preparation, work, and marriage” Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, Pub L No. 104-193 (1996).
1996 Welfare Reform: Purpose “Increase the flexibility of states in operating a program designed to: 3. Prevent and reduce the incidence of out-of- wedlock pregnancies and establish annual numerical goals toward these goals 4. Encourage the formation and maintenance of two- parent families” Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, Pub L No. 104-193 (1996).
TANF Policies and “Family Life Obligations” WorkfareWorkfare ImmunizationsImmunizations Other health visits (pediatric, family planning)Other health visits (pediatric, family planning) School attendanceSchool attendance Child exclusion/family capChild exclusion/family cap Paternity identificationPaternity identification Child support enforcementChild support enforcement Teen residency requirementsTeen residency requirements Drug screensDrug screens Noncitizens, including legal residentsNoncitizens, including legal residents
Health Insurance Medicaid drop (Families USA, AGI, Kaiser)Medicaid drop (Families USA, AGI, Kaiser) –21% in women of reproductive age between 1994-1998 (R. Gold. AGI report, 12/99) –30.7% (10,093) of the US population was uninsured in 2001 (US Census, Annual Demographic Survey, 2001) CHIP enrollment slow and lowCHIP enrollment slow and low –By 1999, only 2 million had been enrolled in the past year and –11 million children remained uninsured –Currently, CHIP covers 3.5 million children (Kaiser Commission, December 2001) in addition to the 22 million covered by Medicaid.
Family Cap 23 states (19 received pre-PRWORA waivers)23 states (19 received pre-PRWORA waivers) Only NJ and AR completed evaluationsOnly NJ and AR completed evaluations ArkansasArkansas –no effect on birth rate, paternity ID, income, exits or entrances to AFDC; half of the women not fertile New JerseyNew Jersey –decreased birth rate, increased family planning and abortion (esp. among new cases) 5 states surveyed caseworkers and recipients5 states surveyed caseworkers and recipients –concur that grant not a factor in childbearing decisions As of 1999, 83,000 children in 16 states were “capped”As of 1999, 83,000 children in 16 states were “capped”
Illegitimacy Bonus Illegitimacy Bonus Winners: 1999, 2000 and 2001 199920002001 RankState% change out- of-wedlock births State% change out- of-wedlock births State% change out- of-wedlock births 1234512345 CA DC MI AL MA -5.7 -3.7 -3.4 -2.0 -1.5 DC AZ MI AL IL -4.1 -1.4 -1.3 -0.3 -0.02 DC AL MI -- -3.98 -0.25 -0.009 Data for 1999 represent the % change in out-of-wedlock births from 1994-95 to 1996-97; 2000, % change from 1995-96 to 1997-98; 2001, % change from 1996-97 to 1998-99. National Center for Health Statistics. State Rankings, 1999, 2000, and 2001.
II WIC, Medicaid, Welfare: Understanding Government Assistance in NYC Developed by: Anouk Amzel, M.D. Hetty Cunningham, M.D.
Conditions of TANF:NYC Lifetime limit of 60 months Work Activities requirement –Education –ESL –Job search –Work (non-subsidized or Work Experience Program) Must comply with Child Support Services School attendance requirement
Work Requirement Exemption Caring for a child younger than 12 monthsCaring for a child younger than 12 months –No more than 12 months of a caretakers life may be exempted for child care –No more than 3 months for any one child Social service official may extend to 12 monthsSocial service official may extend to 12 months Not job readyNot job ready Fleeing domestic violenceFleeing domestic violence Ill or incapacitated person or person caring for an ill or incapacitated person.Ill or incapacitated person or person caring for an ill or incapacitated person.
NYC’s Version: “NYC WAY” March 1998: converts welfare offices into “Job Centers” Core components: –Work experience program (WEP) –Eligibility verification review –Finger printing –Substance abuse program –SSI –Intensive case control
Who Qualifies for Family Assistance? Income of <185% of federal poverty level $2,138 per month for a family of 3 = $25,666 per year
Food Stamps Average monthly allotment $73 per person Uses Food or food products Seeds or food-producing plants Exemptions Alcohol and tobacco Food to be eaten in the store Vitamins and medicines Pet foods Any non-food items
Food Stamps Who is eligible?Who is eligible? –U.S citizens –Many child and elderly legal immigrants –<130% federal poverty limit
WIC Federal grants to states to provideFederal grants to states to provide –Supplemental foods –Health care referrals –Nutrition education Works through vouchers for use in storesWorks through vouchers for use in stores 1.Get essential foods: milk, eggs,cheese, etc. 2.Formula Allotment: The equivalent of 403 fluid ounces per month: about 12 cans of concentrated formula.
WIC EligibilityEligibility –Low-income (<180% FPL) Pregnant womenPregnant women Postpartum womenPostpartum women Infants and children to age 5 years ”found to be at nutritional risk”Infants and children to age 5 years ”found to be at nutritional risk” –Automatic eligibility with Medicaid –Illegal immigrants can get WIC
Other NYC Assistance Programs * Safety Net AssistanceSafety Net Assistance Emergency Assistance to FamiliesEmergency Assistance to Families Home Energy Assistance ProgramHome Energy Assistance Program Child Care SubsidiesChild Care Subsidies Housing ServicesHousing Services Refugee and Immigration ServicesRefugee and Immigration Services Discount Telephone ServiceDiscount Telephone Service *Limited eligibility
Child Care Transitional Child CareTransitional Child Care –Partial reimbursement of child care costs for up to one year. Low Cost Child Care:Low Cost Child Care: –Group or family day care available through another NYC agency. The cost is based on income and family size.
SSI Background: Supplemental Security Income Enacted 1972 to care for elderly or disabled Americans with limited resources 1997 - 965,000 people receiving SSI Eligibility: Low-income people > 65 years of age Low-income people who are blind or disabled (includes children) Does not include most immigrants Asset limitations
SSI Definition of Disability in Children Changed under welfare reform of 1996 Must have a medically-proven physical and/or mental condition resulting in marked and severe functional limitations Must be expected to last >12 months or result in death
SSI How Do Parents Get SSI? Social Security office has specific guidelines Paperwork sent to the Disabilities Determination Service for decision Must bring information about child’s medical and day-to-day care to the appointment
SSI - Time to Benefits Review process takes several months Provision for presumed disability –HIV infection –Blindness –Deafness (in some cases) –CP (in some cases) –Down’s syndrome –Muscular dystrophy –Significant mental deficiency –DM (with foot amputation) –Amputation of 2 limbs or the leg at the hip
Continuing Disability Review Reviewing disabilityReviewing disability –If improvement is expected -- case review q6-18 months –If improvement is possible but not predicted -- case review q3 years –If improvement is not expected -- case review q5 - 7 years Must present evidence of compliance with medical treatmentMust present evidence of compliance with medical treatment
Major Developments Since 1996 Biggest drop in welfare rolls since inceptionBiggest drop in welfare rolls since inception Racial disparity in those leaving the rollsRacial disparity in those leaving the rolls Varied employment and income experiencesVaried employment and income experiences Drop in Medicaid, Food Stamps, WICDrop in Medicaid, Food Stamps, WIC Increased lack of health insuranceIncreased lack of health insurance Increased reports of hunger and homelessnessIncreased reports of hunger and homelessness Privatization of servicesPrivatization of services Widespread lack of child careWidespread lack of child care
Finding Common Ground: Overall Conclusions Dramatic declines in benefit programs; mixed findings regarding income, job retention, poverty status Limited evaluations of behavior-related TANF policies State health personnel largely uninvolved in welfare policies and report welfare policymakers not focused on health Association between uninsurance and state TANF policies Association between maternal health problems and ability to work, and child chronic illness and mothers’ ability to work Need more health-related data to contribute usefully to post- welfare reform programs