Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Mrs. Atchison HS I. 4.01 Remember the structures of the urinary system Essential Question What are the structures of the urinary system? 4.01 Remember.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Mrs. Atchison HS I. 4.01 Remember the structures of the urinary system Essential Question What are the structures of the urinary system? 4.01 Remember."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mrs. Atchison HS I

2 4.01 Remember the structures of the urinary system Essential Question What are the structures of the urinary system? 4.01 Remember the structures of the urinary system 2

3 Urinary System Functions of Urinary System: 1. Excretion- removing nitrogenous wastes, certain salts and excess water from blood. 2. Maintain acid-base balance 3. Secrete waste products in the form of urine – remove waste from body 4. Eliminate urine from bladder

4 What if kidneys are not working properly? Toxic wastes would accumulate in the cells, poisoning them

5 Structures of the urinary system Kidneys Ureters Bladder Urethra Urinary meatus 4.01 Remember the structures of the urinary system 5

6 Structures of the urinary system Kidneys Bean-shaped organs Located between peritoneum and the back muscles (RETROPERITONEAL) Renal Pelvis- funnel shaped structure at the beginning of the ureter 4.01 Remember the structures of the urinary system 6

7 Medulla Inner, striated layer Striated cones (divisions) are renal pyramids

8 Cortex Composed of millions of microscopic functional units called nephrons

9 Nephrons Functional unit of the kidney Over 1 million in each kidney which comprise 140 miles of filters and tubes Parts include: 1. Bowman’s capsule 2. Glomerulus 3. Proximal convoluted tubule 4. Loop of Henle 5. Distal convoluted tubule 6. Collecting tubule

10 Question The Bowman’s capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, and loop of Henle are all parts of a: A. bladder. B. nephron. C. pelvis. D. ureter.

11 Answer NEPHRON

12 Question The functional unit of the kidney is the: A. aldosterone. B. bladder. C. nephron. D. renin.

13 Answer NEPHRON

14 Structures of the urinary system Kidneys External structures Renal capsule Renal hilum Internal structures Renal cortex Renal medulla Renal pelvis 4.01 Remember the structures of the urinary system 14

15 Structures of the urinary system External kidney Renal fascia Renal fascia Fibrous layer of connective tissue Renal hilum Renal hilum Indentation that gives the kidney its bean-shaped appearance 4.01 Remember the structures of the urinary system 15

16 Structures of the urinary system Renal cortex Composed of millions of microscopic functional units called nephrons 4.01 Remember the structures of the urinary system 16

17 Structures of the urinary system Renal cortex Composed of millions of microscopic functional units called nephrons 4.01 Remember the structures of the urinary system 17

18 Structures of the urinary system Ureters Muscular tube extending from each kidney to the urinary bladder Lined by a mucous membrane 10-12” long 4.01 Remember the structures of the urinary system 18 Ureters

19 Question If kidney stones get too large, they can cause severe flank pain and hydronephrosis because they block the: A. bladder. B. nephron. C. ureter. D. urethra.

20 Answer Ureter

21 Understand the functions of the urinary system Fluid and electrolyte balance 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system What effect does this cycle have on your blood pressure? 21

22 Understand the functions of the urinary system The flow of electrolytes 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system Review urine formation, electrolyte exchange, and some factors that effect urine volume. 22

23 Understand the functions of the urinary system If more water is reabsorbed back into the body- --what will happen to urine concentration? (more or less concentrated?) If more water is reabsorbed back into the body- --what will happen to urine concentration? (more or less concentrated?) 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system review 23

24 Urinalysis 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 24

25 Ureters One from each kidney Carry urine from kidney to bladder Smooth muscle tube with mucous membrane lining Peristalsis pushes urine down ureters The tubes that connect the kidneys and bladder.

26 Question Urine leaves the kidney by way of the: A. glomerulus. B. nephron. C. ureter. D. urethra.

27 Answer URETER

28 Structures of the urinary system Urinary bladder Hollow muscular organ Located in pelvic cavity Made of elastic fibers and involuntary muscles 4.01 Remember the structures of the urinary system 28

29 Question Which structure is a hollow muscular sac? A. Bladder B. Kidney C. Ureter D. Urethra

30 Answer Bladder

31 Structures of the urinary system Urethra Connects the bladder to the outside of the body Female 1-2” long Male 4-6” long Urinary meatus Opening to the outside of the body 4.01 Remember the structures of the urinary system 31 Female Male

32 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system Essential Questions What are the functions of the urinary system? What are some disorders of the urinary system? How are disorders of the urinary system treated? How do you relate the body’s hormone control to the urinary system? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 32

33 Understand the functions of the urinary system Functions : Excretion Formation of urine Fluid and electrolyte balance Elimination of urine 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 33

34 Understand the functions of the urinary system Filtration Reabsorption Secretion 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 34

35 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system First step in urine formation Blood from renal artery enters glomerulus High blood pressure in glomerulus forces fluid (Filtrate) to filter into Bowman’s capsule (function of glomerulus is to filter substances from the blood) 35

36 Filtration-Con’t Filtrate does not contain plasma proteins or RBCs- they are too big Bowman’s capsule filters out 125cc of fluid/min. – 7500cc/hour As filtrate continues through nephron, 90% of water is reabsorbed

37 Question Jessica is experiencing hematuria. Which process of urine formation has been ineffective? A. Filtration B. Reabsorption C. Secretion D. Excretion

38 Answer Filtration

39 Question The patient in chronic renal failure is treated with hemodialysis. What renal function does hemodialysis replace? A. Filtration B. Hormone control C. Nervous control D. Peristalsis

40 Answer Filtration

41 Reabsorption Water and useful substances are reabsorbed If blood levels of certain substances are high (glucose, amino acids, vitamins, sodium) then those substances will not be reabsorbed Useful substances filter out of the renal tubules and back into the capillaries around the tubules = reabsorption 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 41

42 Question Mr. Gavin has had polyuria for several weeks. When he went to the doctor, his urinalysis was normal. Further studies revealed that Mr. Gavin had a disorder that affected the release of ADH. Which function of the urinary system was affected? A. Elimination B. Filtration C. Reabsorption D. Secretion

43 Answer Reabsorption

44 Question Dehydration has a direct effect on urine formation. The proximal convoluted tubules are responsible for correcting the water imbalance found with dehydration. What is this process called? A. Diffusion B. Filtration C. Reabsorption D. Secretion

45 Answer reabsorption

46 Secretion 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system Opposite of reabsorption Secretion transports substances from blood into collecting tubules Substances include creatinine, hydrogen ions, potassium ions, and some drugs Electrolytes are selectively secreted to maintain body’s acid- base balance 46

47 Question Excessive substances in urinary filtrate, such as sodium and potassium, lead to their elimination. Which process of elimination is this urinary system function? A. Diffusion B. Filtration C. Reabsorption D. Secretion

48 Answer Secretion

49 Urinary Output Average= 1500 ml/day Urinalysis- examination of urine to determine presence of blood cells, bacteria, acidity level, specific gravity and physical characteristics (color, clarity and odor) Normal in urinalysis = Ammonia not normal = glucose, blood, pus

50 What color is your pee?

51 Question Jeremy is on the cross country team at school. He notices that after practice his urine is dark amber- colored and he is voiding very small amounts. Jeremy has: A. cystitis. B. dehydration. C. enuresis. D. polyuria.

52 Answer dehydration

53 Path of urine formation Afferent arteriole - Glomerulus – Bowman’s capsule – proximal convoluted tubule – loop of Henle – distal convoluted tubule – collecting tubule – renal pelvis - ureter

54 Chemical Control Reabsorption of H2O in distal convoluted tubule controlled by ADH (antidiuretic hormone) Secretion and regulation of ADH controlled by hypothalamus Diuretics inhibit reabsorption of H2O Production of urine is controlled by ADH and aldosterone

55 Disorders of the urinary system 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 55

56 Disorders of the urinary system Cystitis What is cystitis (cyst= medical term for ____ +itis =___ ) Most common cause: E. Coli What are the major symptoms of cystitis? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 56

57 Question The student presented at her doctor’s office with complaints of dysuria, urinary frequency and lower abdominal discomfort. Upon examination, the doctor discovered that the student’s hygiene was inadequate. Which organism MOST LIKELY caused the student’s symptoms? A. Clostridium difficile B. E-coli C. Staphylococcus D. Streptococcus

58 Answer E-coli

59 Cystitis More common in females—Why ?? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system Rx= antibiotics Disorders of the urinary system 59

60 Glomerulonephritis Two types: Acute Chronic 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system Disorders of the urinary system 60

61 Renal calculi Also known as nephrolithiasis nephro lith iasis nephro lith iasis What are renal calculi made of? What are the symptoms? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system Disorders of the urinary system 61

62 Renal calculi What will happen if the ureters are blocked? What will happen if the ureters are blocked? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system Disorders of the urinary system 62

63 Renal calculi How is it treated? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system Disorders of the urinary system 63

64 Disorders of the Urinary System Renal Calculi (Kidney Stones) Made of crystals of calcium phosphate and uric acid Gradually they get larger until they block ureters First symptom- severe pain Other symptoms- nausea and vomiting, frequency, chills, fever, hematuria Diagnosis- by symptoms, ultrasound, or x-ray Rx- increase fluids to flush out stone, medications, and if needed- lithotripsy

65 Disorders of the Urinary System Renal Calculi (Kidney Stones) Made of crystals of calcium phosphate and uric acid Gradually they get larger until they block ureters First symptom- severe pain Other symptoms- nausea and vomiting, frequency, chills, fever, hematuria Diagnosis- by symptoms, ultrasound, or x-ray Rx- increase fluids to flush out stone, medications, and if needed- lithotripsy

66 Kidney Transplant As a last resort for renal failure Involves donor organ from someone with a similar immune system Main complication- rejection

67 Renal Failure Chronic kidney disease leads to a buildup of fluid and waste products in the body Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system Disorders of the urinary system 67

68 Renal Failure How is it treated? Peritoneal dialysis Peritoneal dialysis What is the process involved in this treatment? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system Disorders of the urinary system 68

69 Dialysis (Hemodialysis) Used for kidney failure Involves the passage of blood through device with semipermeable membrane Dialysis serves as substitute kidney Blood from patient flows through machine and is filtered Can be done at home or in clinic Takes 2-4 hours, 2-3 times a week

70 Question The patient sustained an electric shock when he accidentally touched live wires while cleaning up the yard following a severe storm. The shock affected his urinary function and resulted in oliguria and uremia. How will the patient’s symptoms be treated if he develops anuria? A. Antibiotics B. Catheterization C. Hemodialysis D. Lithotripsy

71 Answer hemodialysis

72 Disorders of the urinary system Renal transplant 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system What is the major complication of renal transplantation? 72

73 Question Dialysis involves the use of a device that rids the blood of harmful wastes by passing the blood through: A. a biological sponge. B. a semipermeable membrane. C. an electrolyte gel. D. chemical neutralizers in a filter system.

74 Answer Semi-permeable membrane

75 Terminology Enuresis- bedwetting Gylcosuria- sugar in urine Nocturia- frequent urination at night Polyuria- large amounts of urine Anuria- no urine produced Hematuria- blood in urine Diuretic- drug or substance to increase urine production Oliguria – decreased urine production (sign of kidney failure)

76 Question The medical term for excessive urination is: A. incontinence. B. nocturia. C. oliguria. D. polyuria.

77 Answer polyuria

78 Question Mr. Burns had a stroke and has been urinating involuntarily. What is this condition called? A. Cystitis B. Glomerulonephritis C. Incontinence D. Pyuria

79 Answer incontinence

80 Question Jack takes his blood pressure medicine every morning. After taking his medicine, he experiences urinary frequency. What type of blood pressure medicine is Jack taking? A. ADH B. Antibiotic C. Diuretic D. Renin

81 Answer Renin


Download ppt "Mrs. Atchison HS I. 4.01 Remember the structures of the urinary system Essential Question What are the structures of the urinary system? 4.01 Remember."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google