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4.01 Remember the structures of the urinary system.

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Presentation on theme: "4.01 Remember the structures of the urinary system."— Presentation transcript:

1 4.01 Remember the structures of the urinary system

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3 4.01 Remember the structures of the urinary system Essential Question What are the structures of the urinary system? 4.01 Remember the structures of the urinary system 3

4 Essential Questions What are the functions of the urinary system? What are some disorders of the urinary system? How are disorders of the urinary system treated? How do you relate the bodys hormone control to the urinary system? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 4

5 Structures of the urinary system Kidneys Ureters Bladder Urethra Urinary meatus 4.01 Remember the structures of the urinary system 5

6 Structures of the urinary system Kidneys (p. 567) External structures Renal capsule Renal hilum Internal structures Renal cortex Renal medulla Renal pelvis 4.01 Remember the structures of the urinary system 6

7 Structures of the urinary system External kidney Renal fascia Renal fascia Fibrous layer of connective tissue Renal hilum Renal hilum Indentation that gives the kidney its bean-shaped appearance 4.01 Remember the structures of the urinary system 7

8 Structures of the urinary system Internal kidney (p. 567) Renal cortex Renal cortex Outer layer Renal medulla Renal medulla Middle layer Renal pelvis Renal pelvis Innermost layer 4.01 Remember the structures of the urinary system 8

9 Structures of the urinary system Renal cortex Composed of millions of microscopic functional units called nephrons 4.01 Remember the structures of the urinary system 9

10 Structures of the urinary system Nephron Functional unit of kidney Renal corpuscle Renal corpuscle Bowmans capsule Glomerulus Renal tubule Renal tubule Proximal convoluted tubule Loop of Henle Distal convoluted tubule Collecting tubules 4.01 Remember the structures of the urinary system 10 Each kidney contains about 1.3 MILLION nephrons!

11 Structures of the Urinary system Renal medulla Inner, striated layer RENAL PYRAMIDS RENAL PYRAMIDS are the striated cones. CALYCES Base of each pyramid faces cortex, while apex empties into cuplike cavities called CALYCES Renal columns Renal columns Located between the pyramids Cortical tissue 4.01 Remember the structures of the urinary system 11

12 Structures of the urinary system Renal pelvis Funnel shaped structure at the beginning of the ureter 4.01 Remember the structures of the urinary system 12

13 Structures of the urinary system Ureters (p. 588) Muscular tube extending from each kidney to the urinary bladder Lined by a mucous membrane long 4.01 Remember the structures of the urinary system 13 Ureters

14 Structures of the urinary system Urinary bladder Hollow muscular organ Located in pelvic cavity Made of elastic fibers and involuntary muscles 4.01 Remember the structures of the urinary system 14

15 Structures of the urinary system Urethra (p. 589) Connects the bladder to the outside of the body Female 1-2 long Male 4-6 long Urinary meatus Opening to the outside of the body 4.01 Remember the structures of the urinary system 15 Female Male

16 Functions : Excretion Formation of urine Fluid and electrolyte balance Elimination of urine 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 16

17 Excretion (p.566) What is excretion? Why does the body have excretory functions? What is the composition of wastes excreted by the urinary system? How is it relevant to health? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 17

18 Filtration Reabsorption Secretion 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 18

19 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system Blood from renal artery enters glomerulus High pressure in glomerulus forces fluid into Bowmans capsule, where it is filtered (p.566, 577) 19

20 BOWMANS CAPSULE Bowmans capsule filters out 125cc of fluid/min. …how many ccs per hour is this? As the filtrate continues through nephron, 90% of water is reabsorbedwhat would happen if reabsorption here failed? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 20

21 What substances are reabsorbed? Where do they go? If blood levels of certain substances are high, the substances will not be reabsorbed. How does this help maintain homeostasis? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 21

22 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system What is secretion? Describe how this process is the opposite of reabsorption…. 22

23 What substances are secreted into the collecting tubules? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 23

24 Fluid and electrolyte balance Electrolytes are selectively secreted to maintain bodys acid-base balance. What are electrolytes? What do they do? What is the relevance to health? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 24

25 Fluid and electrolyte balance Chemical control (p. 583) ADH Aldosterone Nervous control 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 25

26 Fluid and electrolyte balance Chemical control ADH – Antidiuretic hormone Aldosterone 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 26

27 Fluid and electrolyte balance Chemical control ADH ADH is released by the posterior pituitary gland What is the function of ADH (antidiuretic hormone)? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 27

28 Fluid and electrolyte balance Chemical control ADH The amount of ADH produced is related to the level of body hydration ADH What factors regulate the release of ADH? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 28

29 Forming more dilute urine: Define dilute urine What are diuretics? What effect do they have on the production of urine? Give examples of substances that have diuretic effects Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 29

30 Fluid and electrolyte balance Chemical control Aldosterone Where does it come from? What does it do? Aldosterone release is the result of the renin- angiotensin system. What does this mean? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 30

31 Fluid and electrolyte balance 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system What effect does this cycle have on your blood pressure? 31

32 Fluid and electrolyte balance Nervous control How does the nervous system control urinary secretions? What other systems are involved in the production and excretion of urine? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 32

33 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system Review urine formation, electrolyte exchange, and some factors that effect urine volume. 33

34 What do you predict will happen to blood pressure when the blood volume increases? What if blood volume decreases? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system review 34

35 If more water is reabsorbed back into the body---what will happen to urine concentration? (more or less concentrated?) If more water is reabsorbed back into the body---what will happen to urine concentration? (more or less concentrated?) 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system review 35

36 Elimination of urine What causes the bladder to empty? Is this a voluntary or involuntary action? What can prevent urination? How is urinary retention treated? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 36

37 Elimination of urine Urinary output 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system Average urinary output = 1500 ml per day * How many ounces is this? What effects the color of your urine? 37

38 An examination of urine What does normal urine look like? What constitutes an abnormal urinalysis? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 38

39 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system What could the presence of blood in urine indicate? What is the medical term for this condition? 39

40 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 40

41 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 41

42 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 42

43 Cystitis What is cystitis (cyst= medical term for ____ +itis =___ ) Most common cause: E. Coli What are the major symptoms of cystitis? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 43

44 Cystitis More common in femalesWhy ?? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system Rx= antibiotics 44

45 Glomerulonephritis 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system Disease which injures the glomerulus. What will happen as a result of damaged glomeruli? 45

46 Glomerulonephritis Two types: Acute Chronic Define these terms. How do these terms relate to glomerulonephritis symptoms? What is the prognosis for each? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 46

47 Renal calculi Also known as nephrolithiasis nephro lith iasis nephro lith iasis What are renal calculi made of? What are the symptoms? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 47

48 Renal calculi What will happen if the ureters are blocked? What will happen if the ureters are blocked? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 48

49 Renal calculi How is it treated? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 49

50 Renal calculi How does lithotripsy work? Is it a cure? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 50

51 Renal failure Acute Acute What causes it? What causes it? What are the symptoms? What are the symptoms? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 51

52 Renal failure chronic May be none in early stages, urinalysis may reveal proteinuria Why would protein be present in the urine? Why is this not normal? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 52

53 Renal Failure Chronic kidney disease leads to a buildup of fluid and waste products in the body. How are these systems affected by renal failure? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 53

54 Renal Failure How is it treated? Peritoneal dialysis Peritoneal dialysis What is the process involved in this treatment? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 54

55 Renal Failure How is it treated? Hemodialysis Hemodialysis What is hemodialysis? What is hemodialysis? What determines the patients treatment schedule? What determines the patients treatment schedule? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 55

56 Renal Failure Compare the treatment of acute and chronic renal failure Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 56

57 How does hemodialysis mimic glomerular function? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 57

58 Renal transplant What is involved in this treatment option? When does a patient get a transplant? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 58

59 Renal transplant 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system What is the major complication of renal transplantation? 59

60 Essential Questions What are the functions of the urinary system? What are some disorders of the urinary system? How are disorders of the urinary system treated? How do you relate the bodys hormone control to the urinary system? 4.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the urinary system 60


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