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Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Focus on Dialysis and Kidney Transplant (Relates to.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Focus on Dialysis and Kidney Transplant (Relates to."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Focus on Dialysis and Kidney Transplant (Relates to Chapter 47, “Nursing Management: Acute Renal Failure and Chronic Kidney Disease,” in the textbook)

2 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Dialysis Movement of fluid/molecules across a semipermeable membrane from one compartment to another Used to correct fluid/electrolyte imbalances and to remove waste products in renal failure Treat drug overdoses

3 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Dialysis (Cont’d) Two methods of dialysis available  Peritoneal dialysis (PD)  Hemodialysis (HD)

4 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Dialysis (Cont’d) Begun when patient’s uremia can no longer be adequately managed conservatively Initiated when GFR (or creatinine clearance) <15 ml/min

5 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Dialysis (Cont’d) Certain uremic complications also indicate a need  Encephalopathy, pericarditis

6 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. General Principles of Dialysis Diffusion  Movement of solutes from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration

7 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. General Principles of Dialysis (Cont’d) Osmosis  Movement of fluid from an area of lesser concentration to an area of greater concentration of solutes

8 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. General Principles of Dialysis (Cont’d) Ultrafiltration  Water and fluid removal  Results when there is an osmotic gradient across the membrane

9 Osmosis and Diffusion Across Semipermeable Membrane Fig Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.

10 Peritoneal Dialysis Peritoneal access is obtained by inserting a catheter through the anterior wall Technique for catheter placement varies Usually done via surgery

11 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Peritoneal Dialysis (Cont’d) After catheter inserted, skin is cleaned with antiseptic solution and sterile dressing applied Connected to sterile tubing system Secured to abdomen with tape Catheter irrigated immediately

12 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Peritoneal Dialysis (Cont’d) Waiting period of 7 to 14 days preferable 2 to 4 weeks after implantation, exit site should be clean, dry, and free of redness/tenderness Once site is healed, patient may shower and pat dry

13 Tenckhoff Catheter Fig Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.

14 Fig A-C and Fig Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.

15 Peritoneal Dialysis Dialysis Solutions and Cycles Available in 1- or 2-L plastic bags with glucose concentrations of 1.5%, 2.5%, and 4.25% Electrolyte composition similar to plasma Solution warmed to body temperature

16 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Peritoneal Dialysis Dialysis Solutions and Cycles (Cont’d) Three phases of PD cycle  Called an exchange Inflow (fill) Dwell (equilibration) Drain

17 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Peritoneal Dialysis Dialysis Solutions and Cycles (Cont’d) Inflow  Prescribed amount of solution infused through established catheter over about 10 minutes  After solution infused, inflow clamp closed to prevent air from entering tubing

18 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Peritoneal Dialysis Dialysis Solutions and Cycles (Cont’d) Dwell  Diffusion and osmosis occur between patient’s blood and peritoneal cavity  Duration of time varies depending on method

19 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Fig

20 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Peritoneal Dialysis Dialysis Solutions and Cycles (Cont’d) Drain  15 to 30 minutes  May be facilitated by gently massaging abdomen or changing position

21 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Peritoneal Dialysis Systems Automated peritoneal dialysis (APD)  Cycler delivers the dialysate  Times and controls fill, dwell, and drain Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)  Manual exchange

22 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Peritoneal Dialysis Complications Exit site infection Peritonitis Abdominal pain Outflow problems Hernias

23 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Peritoneal Dialysis Complications (Cont’d) Lower back problems Bleeding Pulmonary complications Protein loss

24 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Peritoneal Dialysis Complications (Cont’d) Carbohydrate and lipid abnormalities Encapsulating sclerosing peritonitis Loss of ultrafiltration

25 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Peritoneal Dialysis Effectiveness and Adaptation Short training program Independence Ease of traveling Fewer dietary restrictions Greater mobility than with HD

26 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Hemodialysis Vascular Access Sites Obtaining vascular access is one of most difficult problems  Types of access include Shunts Internal arteriovenous fistulas and grafts Temporary vascular access

27 Vascular Access for Hemodialysis Fig Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.

28 Hemodialysis Dialyzers Long plastic cartridge that contains thousands of parallel hollow tubes or fibers Fibers are the semipermeable membrane

29 Hemodialysis System Fig Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.

30 Hemodialysis Procedure Two needles placed in fistula or graft Needle closer to fistula or red catheter lumen pulls blood from patient and sends to dialyzer Blood returned from dialyzer to patient through second needle or blue catheter

31 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Hemodialysis Procedure (Cont’d) Dialyzer/blood lines primed with saline solution to eliminate air Heparin added to blood as it flows to dialyzer Terminated by flushing dialyzer with saline to remove all blood Needles removed and firm pressure applied

32 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Hemodialysis Procedure (Cont’d) Before treatment, nurse should  Complete assessment of fluid status, condition of access, temperature, skin condition During treatment, nurse should  Be alert to changes in condition  Perform vital signs every 30 to 60 minutes

33 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Fig

34 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Hemodialysis Complications Hypotension Muscle cramps Loss of blood Hepatitis Sepsis Disequilibrium syndrome

35 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Hemodialysis Effectiveness and Adaptation Cannot fully replace metabolic and hormonal functions of kidneys Can ease many of the symptoms Can prevent certain complications

36 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Continual Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT) Alternative or adjunctive method for treating ARF Means by which uremic toxins and fluids are removed Acid-base status/electrolytes adjusted slowly and continuously

37 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Continual Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT) (Cont’d) Can be used in conjunction with HD Contraindication  Presence of manifestations of uremia requiring rapid resolution Continued for 30 to 40 days

38 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Continual Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT) (Cont’d) Hemofilter change every 24 to 48 hours Ultrafiltrate should be clear yellow Specimens may be obtained for evaluation

39 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Continual Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT) (Cont’d) Two types of CRRT  Continuous arteriovenous therapies (CAVTs)  Continuous venovenous therapies (CVVTs) Most commonly used  Continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH)  Continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD)

40 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Continual Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT) (Cont’d) Continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH)  Large volume of fluid removed hourly, then replaced  Fluid replacement dependent on stability/individualized needs of patient

41 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Continual Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT) (Cont’d) Continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD)  Uses dialysate  Dialysate bags attached to distal end of hemofilter

42 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Continual Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT) (Cont’d) Continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD) (cont’d)  Fluid pumped countercurrent to blood flow  Ideal treatment for patient who needs fluid/solute control but cannot tolerate rapid fluid shifts with HD

43 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Continual Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT) (Cont’d) Highly permeable, hollow fiber hemofilter Uses double-lumen catheter placed in femoral, jugular, or subclavian vein Removes plasma water and nonprotein solutes

44 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Continual Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT) (Cont’d) CRRT versus HD  Continuous rather than intermittent  Solute removal by convection (no dialysate required) in addition to osmosis and diffusion  Less hemodynamic instability

45 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Continual Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT) (Cont’d) CRRT versus HD (cont’d)  Does not require constant monitoring by HD nurse  Does not require complicated HD equipment

46 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kidney Transplantation More than 66,000 patients currently awaiting deceased (cadaveric) kidney transplants 19,549 kidneys were transplanted in 2004 More than 6990 living donor transplants in 2004

47 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kidney Transplantation (Cont’d) Extremely successful 1-year graft survival rate  90% for cadaver transplants  95% for live donor transplants

48 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kidney Transplantation (Cont’d) Advantages of kidney transplant compared with dialysis  Reverses many of the pathophysiologic changes associated with renal failure  Eliminates the dependence on dialysis  Less expensive than dialysis after the first year

49 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kidney Transplantation Recipient Selection Candidacy determined by a variety of medical and psychosocial factors that vary among transplant centers

50 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kidney Transplantation Recipient Selection (Cont’d) Contraindications to transplantation  Disseminated malignancies  Cardiac disease  Chronic respiratory failure  Extensive vascular disease  Chronic infection  Unresolved psychosocial disorders

51 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kidney Transplantation Histocompatibility Studies Purpose of testing is to identify the HLA antigens for both donors and potential recipients

52 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kidney Transplantation Donor Sources Compatible–blood-type deceased donors Blood relatives Emotionally related living donors Altruistic living donors

53 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kidney Transplantation Surgical Procedure Live donor  Nephrectomy performed by a urologist or transplant surgeon  Begins an hour or two before the recipient’s surgery is started  Rib may need to be removed for adequate view  Takes about 3 hours

54 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kidney Transplantation Surgical Procedure (Cont’d) Live donor (cont’d)  Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy Alternative to conventional nephrectomy Primary method of live kidney procurement

55 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kidney Transplantation Surgical Procedure (Cont’d) Kidney transplant recipient  Usually placed extraperitoneally in the iliac fossa  Right iliac fossa is preferred

56 Fig Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.

57 Kidney Transplantation Surgical Procedure (Cont’d) Kidney transplant recipient (cont’d)  Before incision Urinary catheter placed into bladder Antibiotic solution instilled  Distends the bladder  Decreases risk of infection Crescent-shaped incision

58 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kidney Transplantation Surgical Procedure (Cont’d) Kidney transplant recipient (cont’d)  Rapid revascularization critical  Donor artery anastomosed to recipient internal/external iliac artery  Donor vein anastomosed to recipient external iliac vein

59 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kidney Transplantation Surgical Procedure (Cont’d) Kidney transplant recipient (cont’d)  When anastomoses complete, clamps released and blood flow reestablished  Urine may begin to flow or diuretic may be given  Surgery takes 3 to 4 hours

60 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kidney Transplantation Nursing Management Preoperative care  Emotional and physical preparation  Immunosuppressive drugs  ECG  Chest x-ray  Laboratory studies

61 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kidney Transplantation Nursing Management (Cont’d) Postoperative care  Live donor Care is similar to laparoscopic nephrectomy Close monitoring of renal function Close monitoring of hematocrit

62 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kidney Transplantation Nursing Management (Cont’d) Postoperative care (cont’d)  Recipient Maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance is first priority Large volumes of urine soon after transplanted kidney placed due to  New kidney’s ability to filter BUN  Abundance of fluids during operation  Initial renal tubular dysfunction

63 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kidney Transplantation Nursing Management (Cont’d) Postoperative care (cont’d)  Recipient (cont’d) Urine output replaced with fluids milliliter by milliliter hourly  Urine output closely measured Acute tubular necrosis can occur  May need dialysis Maintain catheter patency

64 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kidney Transplantation Immunosuppressive Therapy Goals  Adequately suppress the immune response  Maintain sufficient immunity to prevent overwhelming infection

65 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kidney Transplantation Complications Rejection  Hyperacute (antibody-mediated, humoral) rejection Occurs minutes to hours after transplantation

66 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kidney Transplantation Complications (Cont’d) Rejection (cont’d)  Acute rejection Occurs days to months after transplantation

67 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kidney Transplantation Complications (Cont’d) Rejection (cont’d)  Chronic rejection Process that occurs over months or years and is irreversible

68 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kidney Transplantation Complications (Cont’d) Infection  Most common infections observed in the first month Pneumonia Wound infections IV line and drain infections

69 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kidney Transplantation Complications (Cont’d) Infection (cont’d)  Fungal infections Candida Cryptococcus Aspergillus Pneumocystis jiroveci

70 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kidney Transplantation Complications (Cont’d) Infection (cont’d)  Viral infections CMV  One of the most common Epstein-Barr virus Herpes simplex virus

71 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kidney Transplantation Complications (Cont’d) Cardiovascular disease  Transplant recipients have increased incidence of atherosclerotic vascular disease  Immunosuppressant can worsen hypertension and hyperlipidemia  Adhere to antihypertensive regimen

72 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kidney Transplantation Complications (Cont’d) Malignancies  Primary cause is immunosuppressive therapy  Regular screening important part of preventive care

73 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kidney Transplantation Complications (Cont’d) Recurrence of original renal disease  Glomerulonephritis  IgA nephropathy  Diabetes mellitus  Focal segmental sclerosis

74 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kidney Transplantation Complications (Cont’d) Corticosteroid-related complications  Aseptic necrosis of the hips, knees, and other joints  Peptic ulcer disease  Glucose intolerance and diabetes

75 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kidney Transplantation Complications (Cont’d) Corticosteroid-related complications (cont’d)  Hyperlipidemia  Cataracts  Increased incidence of infections and malignancies  Close monitoring of side effects

76 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Chronic Kidney Disease Gerontologic Considerations About 35% of ESRD patients are 65 years of age or older Most common diseases leading to renal failure in the older adult  Hypertension  Diabetes

77 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Nursing Management Evaluation Maintenance of ideal body weight Acceptance of chronic disease No infections No edema Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and serum albumin levels in acceptable range

78 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Case Study

79 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Case Study 65-year-old female with history of progressive renal failure for 5 years Diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus when 15 years of age

80 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Case Study (Cont’d) She has diabetic retinopathy with macular degeneration Gives herself insulin using an insulin pen

81 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Case Study (Cont’d) Lab values  BUN 72 mg/dl  Serum creatinine 7.5 mg/dl  GFR 12 ml/min

82 Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Discussion Questions 1.What are her options for renal replacement therapy? 2.Which one would be the best choice for her?


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