Presentation on theme: "Mendel and Heredity. Mendel and Heredity Terms Gregor Mendel- “Father of Genetics” Traits- characteristics that are inherited – Ex. Eye color, hair color."— Presentation transcript:
Mendel and Heredity
Mendel and Heredity Terms Gregor Mendel- “Father of Genetics” Traits- characteristics that are inherited – Ex. Eye color, hair color Genetics- study of biological inheritance patterns Purebred- offspring inherit all of parents characteristics, genetically uniform
Mendel and Heredity Terms Cross- mating of two organisms Gene- piece of DNA that provides a set of instruction to a cell Allele- any alternative form of a gene that may occur
Mendel and Heredity Terms Homozygous- two of the same alleles Heterozygous- two different alleles
Mendel and Heredity Terms Genotype- genetic makeup of a specific set of genes Phenotype- physical characteristics or appearance of an organism Dominant- allele is expressed when two different alleles are present Recessive- allele is expressed only when two copies are present
Genetics In the 1800’s, Gregor Mendel laid the groundwork for modern genetics He crossed many pea plants and observed traits of offspring Discovered that – Organisms inherit two copies of each gene, one from each parent
Genetics Another example: Brown (dominant) vs. black (recessive) Genotypes?Phenotypes?
Genetics Mendel’s discoveries led to the Punnett square Developed by R.C. Punnett Used to predict genotypes of offspring Example: – Straight (dom.) vs. curly (rec.) – Dad-heterozygous – Mom-homozygous recessive
Dihybrid Punnett Square Predicting more than one trait EX. Cross a tall pea plant with green leaves with a short pea plant with yellow leaves. 1.Determine parent genotypes. 2.Find combinations of alleles. 3.Fill out Punnett square. 4.Determine phenotypes of offspring.
Dihybrid Punnett Square EX. Cross a tall (homozygous) pea plant with green (heterozygous) leaves with a short pea plant with yellow leaves. (Tall is dominant to short, green is dominant to yellow)
Dihybrid Practice Cross the parents SsYy x SsYy SSYYSSYySsYYSsYy SSYySsyySsYySsyy SsYYSsYyssYYssYy SsYySsyyssYyssyy SY sysY Sy sy sY Sy SY Smooth/Yellow __9____ Smooth/Green ___3___ Rough/Yellow ____3__ Rough/Green _____1_
Bellringer: Complete both questions in your notebook 1. In one particular species of cats, long hair is dominant to short hair. If a heterozygous male is crossed with a homozygous recessive female, what is the probability that one of the offspring has long hair? 2. A homozygous dominant flower is crossed with a homozygous recessive flower. Purple flowers are dominant to red flowers. What are the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring?
Sex-linked Genes Sex-linked genes- genes located on the sex chromosomes – Female (XX), Male (XY) XXXY XXXY XY X X
Incomplete Dominance Alleles that show incomplete dominance show both the dominant and recessive traits Neither allele is completely dominant or recessive Ex. If a homozygous red flower and homozygous white flower cross, the offspring have pink flowers
Codominance Both the dominant and recessive alleles are expressed Ex. Red and white flower are crossed, the offspring will be red and white
Exit Slip 1.Sex linked genes are located ______________. 2. A dog that shows the phenotypes of both his mother and father would be an example of (incomplete or codominance). 3. A blue flower crosses with a yellow flower to produce a green flower. This is an example of (incomplete or codominance).
Pedigree Pedigree- chart that can help trace phenotypes and genotypes in a family – Helps to determine if people carry the recessive allele
Reading a pedigree
Example ○ □ □ ○ □ How many boy children? How many girl children? Is the oldest child a boy or girl?
DNA Structure DNA is a polymer made of monomers called nucleotides Each nucleotide is made of: – A phosphate group – Deoxyribose (sugar) – Nitrogen containing base
Types of Nucleotides C – Cytosine Pyrimidines T – Thymine A – Adenine Purines G – Guanine
Base-Pairing Rules Nucleotides always pair in the same way – Thymine (T) always pairs with Adenine (A) – Cytosine (C) always pairs with Guanine (G) – Ex. TTACGTAG AATGCATC
DNA Structure DNA is in the shape of a double helix Each nucleotide is paired
Exit Slip 1.Thymine is an example of a _____________. nucleotide 2. The shape of DNA is known as a ___________. Double helix 3. Write the DNA base pair: TCGGAATCCACGTG _______________ – AGCCTTAGGTGCAC
DNA Replication Replication is a process by which DNA is copied Occurs during the S stage of the cell cycle