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Mendel and Heredity.

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Presentation on theme: "Mendel and Heredity."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mendel and Heredity

2 Mendel and Heredity Terms
Gregor Mendel- “Father of Genetics” Traits- characteristics that are inherited Ex. Eye color, hair color Genetics- study of biological inheritance patterns Purebred- offspring inherit all of parents characteristics, genetically uniform

3 Mendel and Heredity Terms
Cross- mating of two organisms Gene- piece of DNA that provides a set of instruction to a cell Allele- any alternative form of a gene that may occur

4 Mendel and Heredity Terms
Homozygous- two of the same alleles Heterozygous- two different alleles

5 Mendel and Heredity Terms
Genotype- genetic makeup of a specific set of genes Phenotype- physical characteristics or appearance of an organism Dominant- allele is expressed when two different alleles are present Recessive- allele is expressed only when two copies are present

6 Genetics In the 1800’s, Gregor Mendel laid the groundwork for modern genetics He crossed many pea plants and observed traits of offspring Discovered that Organisms inherit two copies of each gene, one from each parent

7 Genetics Peas either: Genotypes Phenotypes Round (dominant)
Wrinkled (recessive) Genotypes Phenotypes RR (homozygous dominant) -round Rr (heterozygous) -round rr (homozygous recessive) -wrinkled

8 Genetics Another example: Brown (dominant) vs. black (recessive)
Genotypes? Phenotypes?

9 Genetics Mendel’s discoveries led to the Punnett square
Developed by R.C. Punnett Used to predict genotypes of offspring Example: Straight (dom.) vs. curly (rec.) Dad-heterozygous Mom-homozygous recessive

10 Dihybrid Punnett Square
Predicting more than one trait EX. Cross a tall pea plant with green leaves with a short pea plant with yellow leaves. Determine parent genotypes. Find combinations of alleles. Fill out Punnett square. Determine phenotypes of offspring.

11 Dihybrid Punnett Square
EX. Cross a tall (homozygous) pea plant with green (heterozygous) leaves with a short pea plant with yellow leaves. (Tall is dominant to short, green is dominant to yellow)

12 Dihybrid Practice Cross the parents SsYy x SsYy SY Sy sY sy SY Sy sY
Smooth/Yellow __9____ Smooth/Green ___3___ Rough/Yellow ____3__ Rough/Green _____1_

13 Bellringer: Complete both questions in your notebook
1. In one particular species of cats, long hair is dominant to short hair. If a heterozygous male is crossed with a homozygous recessive female, what is the probability that one of the offspring has long hair? 2. A homozygous dominant flower is crossed with a homozygous recessive flower. Purple flowers are dominant to red flowers. What are the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring?

14 XX XY Sex-linked Genes X Y X X
Sex-linked genes- genes located on the sex chromosomes Female (XX), Male (XY) X Y XX XY X X

15 Incomplete Dominance Alleles that show incomplete dominance show both the dominant and recessive traits Neither allele is completely dominant or recessive Ex. If a homozygous red flower and homozygous white flower cross, the offspring have pink flowers

16 Codominance Both the dominant and recessive alleles are expressed
Ex. Red and white flower are crossed, the offspring will be red and white

17 Exit Slip Sex linked genes are located ______________.
2. A dog that shows the phenotypes of both his mother and father would be an example of (incomplete or codominance). 3. A blue flower crosses with a yellow flower to produce a green flower. This is an example of (incomplete or codominance).

18 Pedigree Pedigree- chart that can help trace phenotypes and genotypes in a family Helps to determine if people carry the recessive allele

19 Pedigree

20 Pedigree Reading a pedigree

21 Example ○ □ □ ○ □ How many boy children? How many girl children? Is the oldest child a boy or girl?

22 Griffith Experiment

23 DNA Structure DNA is a polymer made of monomers called nucleotides
Each nucleotide is made of: A phosphate group Deoxyribose (sugar) Nitrogen containing base

24 Types of Nucleotides C – Cytosine Pyrimidines T – Thymine A – Adenine
Purines G – Guanine

25 Base-Pairing Rules Nucleotides always pair in the same way
Thymine (T) always pairs with Adenine (A) Cytosine (C) always pairs with Guanine (G) Ex. TTACGTAG AATGCATC

26 DNA Structure DNA is in the shape of a double helix
Each nucleotide is paired

27 Exit Slip Thymine is an example of a _____________.
nucleotide 2. The shape of DNA is known as a ___________. Double helix 3. Write the DNA base pair: TCGGAATCCACGTG _______________ AGCCTTAGGTGCAC

28 DNA Replication Replication is a process by which DNA is copied
Occurs during the S stage of the cell cycle

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