2 What is genetics?the study of how traits and diseases are inherited from one generation to the nextthrough genes.Every living thing including plants, animals, microbes, etc., has a set of characteristics inherited from its parent(s).
3 Mendel (Father of Genetics) Studied the inheritance of traits in pea plantsDeveloped the laws of inheritanceMendel's work was not recognized until the turn of the 20th centuryGregor Mendel ( )
4 Mendel notices that there were tall plants and short plants. -Tall parents produced tall offspring-Short produced short offspring.He decided to cross pollinate, meaning the pollen from one flower fertilized the egg of another. This way they would get different traits from each parent.
5 A trait is a specific characteristic such as height or eye color that makes organisms vary from one another.Mendel called the parents the P (parental) generation.The offspring were called F1 or first filial. Filius is the Latin word for son.The offspring F1 generation are now called hybrids since they are a cross of parents with different traits.Mendel crossed the tall plant with the short plant.
6 What do you think happened? All offspring were tall in the F1 generation.Biological inheritance is determined by factors passed from one generation (parents) to the next (babies).Today, these factors are called genes. Different genes of the same trait are called alleles. Ex. Tall and shorts are alleles for height. (T t)2. Mendel discovered the Law of Dominance - some genes can overpower other genes, these genes are called the dominant genes. The "weaker genes" are called recessive genes.Any time a dominant gene is present the dominant trait will be expressed.
7 Parents (tall and short) F1 generation: all tallF2 generation: 3 tall, one short
8 InheritanceMendel stated that physical traits are inherited as “particles”Mendel did not know that the “particles” were actually Chromosomes & DNA
9 VocabularyTrait:- any characteristic that can be passed from parent to offspringHeredity: - passing of traits from parent to offspringGenetics: - study of heredityPurebred: one that always produces offspring with the same form of a trait as the parent. (homozygous)Hybrid: has both forms of a trait (heterozygous)Gamete: - A sex cell, either and egg or a sperm.
10 More Vocabulary Alleles - two forms of a gene (dominant & recessive) Dominant - stronger of two genes expressed in the hybrid; represented by a capital letter (R)Recessive - gene that shows up less often in a cross; represented by a lowercase letter (r)Homozygous and purebred = BBHeterozygous and hybrid= Bb
11 Eight Pea Plant Traits Seed shape --- Round (R) or Wrinkled (r) Seed Color ---- Yellow (Y) or Green (y)Pod Shape --- Smooth (S) or wrinkled (s)Pod Color --- Green (G) or Yellow (g)Seed Coat Color ---Gray (G) or White (g)Flower position---Axial (A) or Terminal (a)Plant Height --- Tall (T) or Short (t)Flower color --- Purple (P) or white (p)
12 Generations P-Generation (Parents) F1 Generation (1st Generation of Offspring)F2 Generation (2nd Generation of Offspring)
13 ProbabilityThe likelihood that a particular even will occur is call probability.For example: toss a coin and it will either land on heads or tails. The probability that the coin will land on heads is ½.The probability that it will land on tails is also ½.
14 If you flip a coin three times, what is the probability that all three will be heads? ½ x ½ x ½ = 1/8The principles of probability can be used to predict the outcomes of genetic crosses as well.A Punnett square is used to do this.
15 Punnett SquaresThe gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross can be determined by drawing a diagram known as the punnett square.
17 Try these: Tt x TT, Bb x bb, TT x tt , and Bb x Bb Parent 1Parent 2Try these: Tt x TT, Bb x bb, TT x tt , and Bb x Bb
18 Genotype and Phenotype Genotype is an organisms genetic makeup. For example Bb or BB or bbPhenotype is the physical characteristics or what they look like. For example if we were talking about eye color, the phenotype would be blue or brown eyes.If B =brown eyes and b= blue eyesBb=would have brown eyesBB= brown eyesbb = blue eyes
19 Let’s Practice Genotype or phenotype BlueTtTallShortBBBrownBlondeBbbb
20 Beyond Dominant and Recessive Alleles Some alleles are neither dominant or recessive, and many traits are controlled by multiple alleles or multiple genes.Incomplete dominance: one allele is not completely dominant over another. A red flower crossed with a white flower, produce pink flowers. (blending)Codominance: Both alleles contribute to the phenotype of the organism. Black chicken crossed to a white chicken produce a black and white chicken
22 Polygenic traitsUnfortunately, not all traits are as easily predicted as plant height.Many traits living organisms have are polygenic traits.Polygenic traits are traits that are controlled by two or more genes. Poly means many. Genic refers to genes. Polygenic means many genes.
23 For exampleThere are at least three genes involved in the reddish brown pigments in the eyes or fruit flies.Also, skin color in humans is controlled by at least four different genes.Mendel’s principals of probability could not be used to predict these traits.However they can be used in some human and fruit fly traits.