Presentation on theme: "Ocean Research Methods and Technology Science 8: Water Systems Curriculum Outcomes Addressed Provide examples of how technologies used to investigate the."— Presentation transcript:
Ocean Research Methods and Technology Science 8: Water Systems Curriculum Outcomes Addressed Provide examples of how technologies used to investigate the ocean floor have improved over time (110-8) Identify some strengths and weaknesses of technologies used to investigate the ocean floor (210-3) Provide examples of public and private Canadian institutions that support scientific and technological research involving the oceans (112-5) Describe some positive and negative effects of marine technologies in the ocean (113-2)
Submersibles A submersible is a small vehicle or craft designed for under water research and exploration. Submersibles differ from submarines because submarines are fully autonomous craft, capable of renewing its own power and breathing air, whereas a submersibles are usually supported by a surface vessel, platform, or shore team. There are two categories of submersibles: – Manned craft: HOVs – Unmanned craft: ROVs, AUVs Submersibles are used for Submersibles have many uses, including oceanography, underwater archaeology, ocean exploration, equipment recovery, and underwater videography and photography.
Manned Submersibles: HOVs HOV stands for “Human Occupied Vehicle” Description: HOVs are submersible crafts that take people under water and to the depths of the ocean Use: To allow scientists to get a first hand experience of studying the ocean. HOVs are used to Advantages: Unlike ROVs and AUVs, HOVs can carry people. Disadvantages: The amount of time spent under water and the depth of travel is limited by having people on board. They are quite costly to build and maintain.
HOV Examples The Bathyscaphe Trieste was the first manned submersible to reach the deepest part of the ocean (11 km deep) in 1960. The Jialong submersible can reach depths of up to 7,000 meters below sea level. Among the most well-known and longest-in-operation submersibles is the DSV Alvin (deep-submergence research vessel), which takes 3 people to depths of up to 4,500 metres deep. Alvin is owned by the United States Navy, and has made over 4,400 dives.
HOV Example #1: ALVIN Alvin is built to withstand the crushing pressure of the deep ocean. The titanium-hulled sub can remain submerged for 10 hours under normal conditions, although its life support system will allow the sub and its occupants to remain underwater for 72 hours. It is capable of maneuvering around rugged bottom areas and can hover in mid-water to perform scientific tasks or take still and video photography.
Unmanned Submersibles: ROVs and AUVs Because the depths of the ocean are very dark and extremely cold (around 1°C), scientists use unmanned robotic craft to explore them. There are two main types of unmanned submersibles: ROVs (Remotely-Operated Vehicles) AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicles) » These have different qualities so they are used for different tasks; the main difference is that while ROVs are physically connected to the ship by a cable, AUVs are not connected to the ship.
ROV stands for “Remotely-Operated Vehicle” Description: Free-floating unmanned submersibles Use: To complete complex manipulations (i.e., get an oil well ready for drilling at the bottom of the ocean floor) and for sampling the seafloor Advantages: ROVs are free-floating and not connected to a ship; The vehicle is self-sufficient – it carries its own energy source and is programmed with instructions that allow it to carry out an underwater mission without assistance from an operator on the surface; it can go on missions that Disadvantages: It cannot carry scientists; they are costly to build and maintain. Unmanned Submersible: ROV
An example of an ROV is the ROPOS (Remotely Operated Platform for Ocean Science), which was originally built in Vancouver for ocean research. The ROPOS is connected to a ship by a fibre optic cable and is controlled by a pilot onboard the ship. The cable provides power and communication to ROPOS and allows live video and other data to be sent back to the ship as it is being collected. The ROPOS is able to dive 5000 meters deep (5km). ROV Example: ROPOS
The ROPOS has a variety of sampling equipment attached – Video cameras – Robotic arms for taking samples of rocks or organisms – Bottles for collecting water samples – A “biobox” for collecting biological samples – A suction sampler that can “vacuum” up sediments/organisms ROV: The ROPOS
Schematic image of ROV deployment and support equipment.
Using a custom designed "push-core" sampler, ROPOS uses one of its manipulator arms to collect 12,000+ year old clay for geological analysis. The ROPOS ROV – Instrument Example http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/technology/subs/ropos/media/core_sediment.html
Unmanned Submersible: AUV AUV stands for “Autonomous Underwater Vehicle” Description: Unmanned submersibles that are often attached to a research vessel by a tether/cable Use: AUVs are best for surveys that can be programmed ahead of time and accomplished without supervision; they are used to measure ocean water characteristics such as temperature and salinity, map the seabed, inspect subsea installations (i.e., pipelines), and to lay underwater cable. Advantages: It can undertake missions over long ranges at reasonable speeds; Aside from programming the submersible, there is not a lot of time investment because scientists can program the AUV in advance; easy to handle because of small size Disadvantages: AUVs are connected to a ship by a cable, so their movement is limited by the length of the cable and the location of the ship; limited control once they are deployed; their small size prevents them from storing capabilities
AUV Example: ABE (Autonomous Benthic Explorer) One specific example of an AUV is the ABE (Autonomous Benthic Explorer). The ABE runs on batteries and can stay under water for more than a day. The ABE is unattached from the ship and houses a computer. Among other things, the ABE can create detailed maps of the vent areas, measure water properties such as temperature and salinity, and detect the presence of microscopic life.
Gravity Corer Gravity corers are used to drill into the ocean floor to collect samples of seafloor sediments (sand, rock, etc.) to find out information about it. Gravity corers are always connected to the ship. It is dropped off the side of a ship until it hits the ocean floor. It then drills into the ocean floor, collecting samples of sea floor sediments as it is pulled up again (similarly to a straw). Advantages: It is simple to use, sturdy (does not break easily), and it does not take a lot of time or money to maintain it. Disadvantages: It can be heavy and awkward to carry/maneuver.
Gravity Corer Sample collected from the sea bed
Description: Sediment traps are containers used to collect particles falling to the ocean floor such as dead sea creatures, tiny shells, dust, and minerals. It is a broad funnel with a collecting jar at the bottom. Use: The information collected helps scientists understand how fast nutrients and other elements move from the ocean surface to the deep ocean (ocean circulation). Advantages: Currently, this is the only way to get data about the amounts and kinds of material that surface waters transport to the deep ocean; Easy to used; fairly inexpensive Disadvantages: It takes a long time to collect enough sediment to study; the traps have to stay vertical (upright) in order to be accurate, so their tilt angle has to be monitored closely. Sediment Trap
Description: Robotic submarines that navigate underwater without a human crew onboard and without cables connecting them to research vessels at the sea surface. They carry a variety of sensors, and are programmed by researchers to go where they are needed to do research. Use: They record temperature, salinity, and movement of areas of the oceans. These measurements are used to research ocean circulation and its effect on the global climate. Advantages: They can provide a look at entire sections of ocean basins. Unlike humans, who need to stop for breaks, gliders can stay underwater as long as 6 months and travel at a speed of 20 kilometers per day. Disadvantages: They are sometimes put off path by ocean currents because they are light weight, and they cannot go deeper than 1,500 meters at this time, so the depth of research is limited. Spray Glider
Description: Similar to Sonar, the ADCP is a current meter used to measure water current velocities using Doppler Effect sound waves that are scattered back from the particles within the water. Use: To measure water current speed/velocity and ocean depth Advantages: ADCPs are much more accurate than long strings of current meters that were used in the past; they can measure up to 1000 meters of depth Disadvantages: They run out of batteries quickly; If the water is very clear, the pings may not hit enough particles to produce reliable data; bubbles in turbulent water or swimming fish can cause the instrument to miscalculate the current Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP)
TowCam Underwater Camera Description & Use: Specially designed digital camera system that photographs the seafloor as it is towed along the ocean bottom behind a research vessel. It is also equipped to take samples of water and collect rocks from the seafloor; It snaps a new photo every 10-15 seconds. Advantages: It provides very high quality digital imagery of seafloor terrains to 6,000 meters depth; it can also collect rock/lava samples and water samples; unlike regular underwater cameras, the TowCam can withstand the extreme environment of the ocean bottom – it can take pictures in total blackness, crushing pressure, and freezing temperatures. Disadvantages: It cannot be "steered" because it is towed behind a ship; The images from the TowCam are not viewable in real-time. They have to be downloaded from the digital camera once the system is back on deck, a process that takes about 40 minutes
TowCam Underwater Camera
Sound Navigation and Ranging (SONAR) Description & Use: A system for the detection of objects under water, and for measuring the water's depth and map out the seafloor by emitting sound pulses and detecting or measuring their return time. Advantages: It is very accurate and not too expensive Disadvantages: SONAR waves can interfere with whale and dolphin echolocation
New vs. Old #1: Scuba Diving Gear Improvements #1NameCategory & Use Use & Difference between old and new technology How has the new technology improved over the old one? Old Scuba Gear To explore the ocean and allow humans to stay underwater for longer periods of time; Hundreds of years ago they used bamboo-like wooden tubes as snorkels Heavy, uncomfortable scuba helmets and masks; heavy dive suits; heavy and large oxygen tanks; limited the amount of time they could stay under water; difficult to move around New Scuba Gear To explore the ocean and allow humans to stay underwater for longer periods of time Light-weight suits and scuba gear; more flexible masks; lighter and smaller oxygen tanks; longer diving time
New vs. Old #2: Submersible Improvements #2NameCategory & Use How has the new technology improved over the old one? Old First submarine Submarine/ Submersible Made of wood; Could not stay submersed for very long periods of time; had leaks; trouble with buoyancy; could not go very deep New Alvin Submersible Made of metals; Can stay underwater for longer periods of time and can go to very deep parts of the ocean; can withstand the cold and pressure of the bottom of the ocean
New vs. Old #3: Sample Collection Improvements #3NameCategory & Use Use & Difference between old and new technology How has the new technology improved over the old one? Old Sampling Net To collect samples of sea floor sediments and marine snow samples; Towed behind a research ship Regular net that was dropped into the ocean to collect samples of sediments and marine snow. New Mocness High- Tech Sampling Net To collect samples of sea floor sediments and marine snow samples; Towed behind a research ship. Automatic/controllable; Multiple opening and closing net system; Can be more controlled; can target specific materials by using an ‘environmental sensing system’.
New vs. Old #4: Sediment Corers #3NameCategory & Use How has the new technology improved over the old one? Old Gravity Corer To collect sediments and study the ocean seabed The gravity corer disturbs sediment samples and can only dig down about 5 meters. New Piston Corer To collect sediments and study the ocean seabed The Piston Corer provides longer, less disturbed, and more complete samples. It can dig deeper than the gravity corer. Cores up to 30 meters are possible in soft sediments and muds.
New vs. Old #5: Scuba Diving Equipment #3NameCategory & Use How has the new technology improved over the old one? Old Old Scuba Diving Gear To allow people to breathe underwater and to explore the ocean for ocean research or as a hobby Relied either on breath-hold, air pumped from the surface, or a breathing tube such as a snorkel; very heavy suits, including a large metal helmet New New Scuba Diving Gear To allow people to breathe underwater and to explore the ocean for ocean research or as a hobby Carry own source of breathing gas (compressed gas); scuba suits are made of softer and water- tight material; can stay under water long and dive deeper
Canadian Ocean Research Organizations
#1: Fisheries and Oceans Canada NameLocationHistory/AboutPurpose/Contributions Fisheries and Oceans Canada Several locations, including Vancouver Island, British Columbia It is one of Canada’s largest marine institutes. It is the center for research on coastal waters of BC, the Northeastern Pacific Ocean, the western Canadian Arctic and navigable fresh waters east to the Alberta border. Its more than 250 scientists and researchers are dedicated to providing up- to-date information on all elements of oceanography, including fisheries and ocean research, environmental science and hydrography. It has become a major player in efforts to restore and manage coastal ecosystems, and produces more than 20 per cent of Canada’s nautical charts. Studies range from the effects of global warming on marine ecosystems, to contaminants in Arctic ice, tracking ‘red tide’ in shellfish, the nature of oil spills, and even predictions on where and when a tsunami will strike.
#2: Environment Canada NameLocationHistory/AboutPurpose/Contributions Environment Canada Several locations across Canada Environment Canada was established to find ways of protecting the environment, conserving the country's natural heritage, and providing weather and meteorological information to keep Canadians informed and safe. It is currently leading an expedition of 10 Canadian scientists onto the frozen Arctic Ocean to learn more about how pollutants move from the air, to the ice and ultimately into the northern ecosystem.
#3: National Research Council Institute for Ocean Technology (NRC) NameLocationHistory/AboutPurpose/Contributions NRC (National Research Council) Institute for Ocean Technology Several locations across Canada Canada's national centre for ocean technology research & development. It was established in 1985 to support the development of innovative technologies in the private sector and to assist oceans-related public initiatives. Research is conducted on technologies for use in ocean observation, marine safety, Arctic operations and performance evaluation. Major facilities operated by the Institute include a 200-metre Towing Tank, a 75-metre by 32-metre Offshore Engineering Basin, and a 90-metre Ice Tank, the longest in the world.
#4: Ocean Networks Canada NameLocationHistory/AboutPurpose/Contributions Ocean Networks Canada University of Victoria, Canada ONC is a non-profit society, established in 2007 by the University of Victoria under the BC Society Act. Under a Management Agreement with the University, the purpose of ONC is to govern, manage and develop: the Ocean Networks Canada Observatory (comprised of the VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada networks) as a national research platform; and the ONC Centre for Enterprise and Engagement as a federal centre of excellence for commercialization and research. Their mission is to enable transformative ocean research for the advancement of science and technology and for the benefit of Canada.
#5: Bedford Institute of Oceanography NameLocationHistory/AboutPurpose/Contributions Bedford Institute of Oceanography Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada The Bedford Institute of Oceanography is the largest ocean research station in Canada. Established in 1962 as Canada's first, and currently largest, federal centre for oceanographic research. BIO houses several organizations from various federal departments which perform targeted research mandated by government or in partnership, advise on marine environments, provide navigational charts, and respond to environmental emergencies.
#6: Institute of Ocean Sciences NameLocationHistory/AboutPurpose/Contributions Institute of Ocean Sciences Vancouver Island, British Columbia Operated by Fisheries and Oceans Canada and is one of the largest marine research centres in Canada; It is made up of more than 250 scientists and researchers Provide up-to-date information on all elements of oceanography, including fisheries and ocean research, environmental science and hydrography (surveying and mapping the ocean); they restore and manage coastal ecosystems, and produce more than 20% of Canada’s nautical charts.
Positive Effects of Ocean ResearchNegative Effects of Ocean Research 1) Helps us learn more about ocean species, which can help us preserve and protect them if they are endangered. 2) Helps us find out the causes of ocean species diseases and decreases of biodiversity, which is important for our ecosystem 3) Helps us understand the connection between the ocean and our atmosphere and weather 1) Some research tools/methods disturb the ocean floor (i.e., bottom- trawling – dragging a net across the ocean floor to collect samples) 2) Some ocean research tools may pollute the ocean due to their fuel source release or by getting detached and lost at sea. 3) Some ocean research tools (such as Sonar) can have negative impacts on dolphins and whales because they interfere with their sound waves (loss of “hearing” and even death)