Presentation on theme: "Scientific Studies in Aquatic Science. Early Aquatic Scientific Studies The United States Exploring Expedition (1839-1843) confirmed the presence of the."— Presentation transcript:
Early Aquatic Scientific Studies The United States Exploring Expedition (1839-1843) confirmed the presence of the continent of Antarctica discovered many Pacific Islands charted much of the Pacific Northwest. some of the first collections in the Smithsonian 50,000 specimens were collected (10,000 species)
The Challenger Expedition funded by the British (1872 - 1876) investigate deep-sea regions of all the oceans first expedition that was purely for marine science. The Glomar Challenger Expedition (1968) proved the theory of plate tectonics developed the technology for deep-sea drilling.
Most modern expeditions utilize multi-million dollar research vessels owned by Government agencies or research labs. http://www.colbertnation.com/the-colbert-report-videos/218488/february-10-2009/robert-ballard
Marine Labs began as a place for marine scientists to process their specimens from expeditions. The first marine lab was started in Italy around 1872. Others followed in England (1879) and the U. S. at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
Technology used for Research Sonar (Sound Navigation Ranging) allowed humans to 'see' the bottom and other solid objects underwater sound is transmitted from a vessel with its reflection received and translated into a profile of the ocean bottom
Diving Technology Visually exploring the oceans was enhanced with the development of scuba diving (Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus) allowed humans to descend to 100 to 200 feet Helmet diving allowed divers to descend deeper and stay longer. Diving bells were developed which allowed divers to enter and exit the bell while staying at deep depths Scuba, helmets and bells subjected the divers to changes in pressure and physiological changes that had to be carefully monitored to avoid death.
Submersibles are built like small submarines take marine scientists to even deeper depths keeps the divers at one atmosphere pressure to avoid complications associated with scuba, helmets and bells.