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1 Use of Resources in a Sample of Wisconsin Districts July 12, 2006 Tim Schell, Waunakee Prepared for the Policy Advisory Task Force of the Wisconsin School.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Use of Resources in a Sample of Wisconsin Districts July 12, 2006 Tim Schell, Waunakee Prepared for the Policy Advisory Task Force of the Wisconsin School."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Use of Resources in a Sample of Wisconsin Districts July 12, 2006 Tim Schell, Waunakee Prepared for the Policy Advisory Task Force of the Wisconsin School Finance Adequacy Initiative

2 2 Questions we seek to answer: What is the level of resources per pupil in Wisconsin? What is the level of resources per pupil in Wisconsin? What are the resource use patterns in the schools we studied and do they reflect the resources included in the proposed evidence- based funding model? What are the resource use patterns in the schools we studied and do they reflect the resources included in the proposed evidence- based funding model? What happened with resource use patterns in another state after an adequacy school finance infusion of funds? What happened with resource use patterns in another state after an adequacy school finance infusion of funds?

3 3 Expenditures on Instruction NEA estimates current operating expenditures per pupil for from all sources at $9,881 NEA estimates current operating expenditures per pupil for from all sources at $9,881 In 2003, national average instructional expenditures as a percent of total current operating expenditures was 61.3% In 2003, national average instructional expenditures as a percent of total current operating expenditures was 61.3% Figure in Wisconsin was 61.8% Figure in Wisconsin was 61.8% NCES: Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year NCES: Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year

4 4 Expenditure on Instruction Compared to Neighboring States State Instruction $ per member % Illinois$4, Indiana$4, Indiana$4, Michigan$5, Minnesota$5, Ohio$4, Wisconsin$5,

5 5 Resource Use in Wisconsin: A Preliminary Analysis Sample of Schools from 9 Districts –9 Elementary Schools – 8 Middle Schools – 8 High Schools 16,716 K-12 Students September 2005 –Average 26.5% Free and Reduced-Price Lunch –Average 15.4% Special Education –Average 4.8% English Language Learners –Close to state averages.

6 6 Geographic Distribution

7 7 General Findings on Wisconsin School Uses of Resources Modestly larger class sizes than model in core content areas at elementary and high schools. Modestly larger class sizes than model in core content areas at elementary and high schools. More specialist teachers at high school and, especially, middle school levels. More specialist teachers at high school and, especially, middle school levels. Extremely few instructional coaches. Extremely few instructional coaches. Much less teacher tutoring than model provides. Much less teacher tutoring than model provides. High number of instructional aides. High number of instructional aides. More school administration at middle and high school levels. More school administration at middle and high school levels. Lower level of pupil support resources than evidence-based model. Lower level of pupil support resources than evidence-based model.

8 8 Resource Use in the Average Sample School Staffing Evidence- Based Model Actual Principal Asst. Principal/Other Instr. Facilitator Core Teachers Spec. Teachers Tutors* Librarian** Licensed Pupil Support

9 9 WI School Resource Uses: Building Administration Evidence-Based Model Actual 1.0 Principal for Every Elementary Students, Middle School Students, High School Students = 25 Total = 24.6

10 10 WI School Resource Uses: Assistant Principal Evidence-Based Model Actual Prorated Assistant Principal/Other FTEs Above Prototype School Sizes (432 Elementary, 450 Middle, and 600 High School Students) = 10.1 Total = 31.7

11 11 WI School Resource Uses: Principal + Assistant Principal Evidence-Based Model Actual 1 Principal or AP* for Every 432 Elementary, 450 Middle, & 600 High School Students = 35.1 Total = 56.3

12 12 School-based Administrative Resources The evidence-based model and actual practice on principals are about the same – 1 principal for each school The evidence-based model and actual practice on principals are about the same – 1 principal for each school The schools studied had more AP positions, due to the large size of the middle and high schools studied. The schools studied had more AP positions, due to the large size of the middle and high schools studied.

13 13 WI School Resource Uses: Instructional Facilitators Evidence-Based Model Actual 1 Facilitator for Every 200 Students = 84.9 Total = 4.4

14 14 WI School Resource Uses: Instructional Facilitators Though a few schools had instructional coaches, this was a rare resource Though a few schools had instructional coaches, this was a rare resource Current school finance system does not provide categorical resources for instructional coaches – and most schools that we studied did not have them. Current school finance system does not provide categorical resources for instructional coaches – and most schools that we studied did not have them. Our research base indicates that the use of instructional coaches is a very high impact use of resources and is probably essential to sustained, substantial performance gains. Our research base indicates that the use of instructional coaches is a very high impact use of resources and is probably essential to sustained, substantial performance gains.

15 15 WI School Resource Use: Students per Core Teacher Evidence- Based Model Actual Elementary18:1 Range (17-26):1 Average 21:1 Middle25:1 Range (21-29):1 Average 25:1 High25:1 Range (24-38):1 Average 29:1

16 16 WI School Resource Use: Students per Core Teacher Elementary class sizes* were the smallest at 21, but above the model. Elementary class sizes* were the smallest at 21, but above the model. Middle school average core class sizes were larger, but similar to the model. Middle school average core class sizes were larger, but similar to the model. High school average core class sizes were higher and above the model. High school average core class sizes were higher and above the model. The model provides more core teachers per student at the elementary and high school levels than existed in the schools studied. The model provides more core teachers per student at the elementary and high school levels than existed in the schools studied.

17 17 WI School Resource Use: Core Teachers in Sample Schools Evidence-Based Model Actual Elementary Middle High337301

18 18 WI School Resource Use: Specialist Teachers per Student Evidence-Based Model Actual 20% of K-8 Core Teachers 33% of 9-12 Core Teachers = 190 Total = 237

19 19 WI School Resource Use: Specialist Teachers per Student There were more specialists in the schools studied, on average, than the evidence- based model would provide. There were more specialists in the schools studied, on average, than the evidence- based model would provide. Fewer elementary specialists now than under the model. Fewer elementary specialists now than under the model. Many more middle level specialists now than under the model. Many more middle level specialists now than under the model. More high school specialists now than under the model. More high school specialists now than under the model.

20 20 WI School Resource Uses: Instructional Aides 15 Library Aides 15 Library Aides 7 Tutorial Aides 7 Tutorial Aides 18 ELL Aides 18 ELL Aides 104 Special Educ. Resource Room Aides 104 Special Educ. Resource Room Aides 40 Other Instructional Aides 40 Other Instructional Aides = Total of 184 Instructional and Extra Help Aides

21 21 WI School Resource Uses: Instructional Aides The sample schools had almost 200 more instructional aides than the evidence-based model, which provides no instructional aides. The sample schools had almost 200 more instructional aides than the evidence-based model, which provides no instructional aides.

22 22 WI School Resource Uses: Tutors Evidence-Based Model Actual 1 Tutor for Every 100 FRL Students = 54 Total = 21

23 23 WI School Resource Uses: Tutors There were fewer tutors in the sampled schools, even though many had federal Title 1 money and state categorical dollars; however, there were relatively more tutors in the WI sample than we have found in schools in other states There were fewer tutors in the sampled schools, even though many had federal Title 1 money and state categorical dollars; however, there were relatively more tutors in the WI sample than we have found in schools in other states The evidence-based model provides substantial tutor resources and tutoring by a licensed teacher is the highest impact extra help strategy. The evidence-based model provides substantial tutor resources and tutoring by a licensed teacher is the highest impact extra help strategy.

24 24 WI School Resource Uses: Pupil Support (Guidance, Social Workers, Nurses, etc.) Evidence-Based Model Actual 1 FTE for Every 100 FRL Students, plus 1 Guidance for every 250 middle and high school students = 106 Total = 95

25 25 WI School Resource Uses: Pupil Support The various pupil support, family outreach resources in the sample schools were modestly below what the model would provide The various pupil support, family outreach resources in the sample schools were modestly below what the model would provide

26 26 WI School Resource Uses: Librarians Evidence-Based Model Actual 1 Librarian for Every 432 Elementary, 450 Middle, & 600 High School Students = 32.8 Total = Media Technician for Every 600 High School Students = 14.1 Total = 6.8

27 27 WI School Resource Uses: Librarians Sample schools seemed to be short on librarians – there was less than 1 librarian for each school whereas the evidence based model provides a librarian for every school, except the very small schools Sample schools seemed to be short on librarians – there was less than 1 librarian for each school whereas the evidence based model provides a librarian for every school, except the very small schools

28 28 General Conclusions WI class sizes are modestly larger, except at middle level. WI class sizes are modestly larger, except at middle level. WI Schools had more specialist/elective teachers, except at elementary level. WI Schools had more specialist/elective teachers, except at elementary level. WI schools had modestly less pupil support resources. WI schools had modestly less pupil support resources. WI schools had substantially more instructional aides. WI schools had substantially more instructional aides. WI schools had substantially fewer instructional coaches and teacher tutors, both very high impact strategies. WI schools had substantially fewer instructional coaches and teacher tutors, both very high impact strategies.

29 29 Average Study Elementary School Staffing Evidence- Based Model Actual Principal Asst. Principal/Other Instr. Facilitator Core Teachers Spec. Teachers Tutors* Librarian** Licensed Pupil Support Avg 451 PK+, 418 K+, 26.5% FRL, 16.6% SWD, 3.9% ELL

30 30 Average Study Middle School Staffing Evidence- Based Model Actual Principal Asst. Principal/Other Instr. Facilitator Core Teachers Spec. Teachers Tutors* Librarian** Licensed Pupil Support Avg. 564, 30.2% FRL, 14.6% SWD, 4.9% ELL

31 31 Average Study High School Staffing Evidence- Based Model Actual Principal Asst. Principal/Other Instr. Facilitator Core Teachers Spec. Teachers Tutors* Librarian** Licensed Pupil Support Avg. 1,055, 24.5% FRL, 15.2% SWD, 5.2% ELL

32 32 As Wisconsin moves forward, what can it learn from Arkansas? If Wisconsin were to implement over time the elements of the evidence-based model: If Wisconsin were to implement over time the elements of the evidence-based model: –Should it provide resources as a block grant and give districts discretion over their use? –Or should it regulate some or all of the uses of the funds? A recent study in Arkansas provides some clues. A recent study in Arkansas provides some clues.

33 33 What Happened in Arkansas? The 2004 Arkansas School Finance Adequacy reform increased school resources based on the Arkansas version of the Evidence-Based model. The 2004 Arkansas School Finance Adequacy reform increased school resources based on the Arkansas version of the Evidence-Based model. The legislature did not require districts to use the resources according to the model; it deferred to the judgment of local educators The legislature did not require districts to use the resources according to the model; it deferred to the judgment of local educators Did local school systems use the resources for the evidence-based, high impact strategies in the evidence-based model? Not Really. Did local school systems use the resources for the evidence-based, high impact strategies in the evidence-based model? Not Really.

34 34 What Happened in Arkansas? In a study of 107 schools, we found that: In a study of 107 schools, we found that: In terms of class size: In terms of class size: –Elementary class sizes averaged 20 while the model provided funding for 23 –Middle school class sizes averaged 25 with funding for 25 –High school class sizes averaged 29 versus funding for 25. Schools had an average of 815 specialist or elective teachers, about 40% above core teachers, whereas the model provided 399 or 20% above core teachers. Schools had an average of 815 specialist or elective teachers, about 40% above core teachers, whereas the model provided 399 or 20% above core teachers.

35 35 What Happened in Arkansas? Schools had an average of 0.20 instructional coaches for every 200 students, while the model funded 1 per 200. Schools had an average of 0.20 instructional coaches for every 200 students, while the model funded 1 per 200. A number of principals asked where the instructional coaches were, but they were not in their schools. A number of principals asked where the instructional coaches were, but they were not in their schools.

36 36 What Happened in Arkansas? Schools had an average of 0.15 teacher tutors for every 100 poverty students, while the model funded 1 per 100, and 2/100 for districts with 70-90% poverty concentration, and 3/100 for poverty concentration above 90%. Schools had an average of 0.15 teacher tutors for every 100 poverty students, while the model funded 1 per 100, and 2/100 for districts with 70-90% poverty concentration, and 3/100 for poverty concentration above 90%. –Rather than using the resources for extra help, many local educators wanted to use the extra help resources for preschool, smaller classes, and higher salaries, neither of which provides extra help for struggling students.

37 37 What Happened in Arkansas? Most districts increased teacher salaries by the dollars for the extra days for training the model provided Most districts increased teacher salaries by the dollars for the extra days for training the model provided Few expanded systemic professional development. Few expanded systemic professional development. There was weak leadership at all levels around the strategies known to double student performance. There was weak leadership at all levels around the strategies known to double student performance.

38 38 What Should Happen Now -- in Arkansas and in Wisconsin? Put constraints on use of some resources: Put constraints on use of some resources: –FRPL money focused on tutoring and some other programs. –Instructional facilitators. Mount a statewide leadership and capacity development strategy to “double” student performance over the next ten years. Mount a statewide leadership and capacity development strategy to “double” student performance over the next ten years. Advocate benchmarking practice vs. most successful Wisconsin schools and the first section of the Evidence Based Report. Advocate benchmarking practice vs. most successful Wisconsin schools and the first section of the Evidence Based Report.

39 39 Six Steps to Doubling Results We know how to double student academic performance We know how to double student academic performance Examples around the country show how student achievement results can be doubled Examples around the country show how student achievement results can be doubled –Aldine (TX), Long Beach (CA), Newport News (VA), Madison (WI) See first section of Evidence-Based report See first section of Evidence-Based report

40 40 The Evidence-Based Model Produces a completely re-engineered school Produces a completely re-engineered school –Think of a hybrid car but not a hover-mobile The Prius gets twice the gas mileage of a traditional car, but still looks like a car The Prius gets twice the gas mileage of a traditional car, but still looks like a car It is a re-engineered car with double performance It is a re-engineered car with double performance Built on strategies that are evidence-based Built on strategies that are evidence-based Evidence that each strategy has boosted student academic achievement Evidence that each strategy has boosted student academic achievement Assumes reallocation of all extant resources to the elements of the model Assumes reallocation of all extant resources to the elements of the model

41 41 Discussion and Questions


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