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Reciprocity Scarcity Authority Commitment Liking (“love bombing”) Social Validation Six Universal Influence Principles Robert Cialdini Robert Cialdini.

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Presentation on theme: "Reciprocity Scarcity Authority Commitment Liking (“love bombing”) Social Validation Six Universal Influence Principles Robert Cialdini Robert Cialdini."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reciprocity Scarcity Authority Commitment Liking (“love bombing”) Social Validation Six Universal Influence Principles Robert Cialdini Robert Cialdini home page:

2 StrategyExamplePrinciple Positive MoodsMake a request in a nice setting (e.g., over a nice dinner); Give feedback (e.g., you got the highest IQ test score) Ingratiation [Reciprocity] Say flattering things (‘those earrings are beautiful,” where did you buy those great shoes?”) Reciprocity Favors [Reciprocity] Offer to carry a heavy object for someoneReciprocity Foot-in-the-door (FITD)Follow a small request with a much larger oneCommitment Door-in-the-face (DITF)Follow a very large request with a smaller, more realistic one Reciprocity That’s-Not-All (TNA) Improving the deal Original cost of item is $2.50 but will sell it now for $ 1.50; Original cost of item is $2.50 and will add another item for free Reciprocity Low Ball Get a “yes” response to purchase a car at a given price (e.g., $18,000), then come back with a final total (adding in many smaller costs) of $19,500) Commitment Scarcity Gaining commitment by limiting choice (real or perceived) Indicating that there is only 1 item left, that time is running out (or both) Psychological reactance

3 He did something that, on the face of it, seems foolish and costly. Each month he sent every one of his more than 13,000 former customers a holiday greeting card containing a printed message. The greeting card changed from month to month (e.g., “Happy New Year,” Happy Thanksgiving”) but the message printed on the face of the card never varied. It read, “I like you.” (Cialdini, 1988, p. 166). Ingratiation

4 Foot in the Door Procedure: Small 1 st request, followed by a larger 2 nd request Key Points: 2 nd request can be made by a different person 2 nd request can be on a different issue Performing the 1 st request is not essential. Agreeing to do it is sufficient Principle : Commitment (Self-perception)

5 Door in the Face Procedure: V ery large 1 st request (refused), followed by a smaller request. Key Points: B oth requests must be made by the same person Perception of a concession/negotiation Feeling of satisfaction within target Principle: Reciprocity

6 That’s Not All Procedure: A)Give original cost, then reduce it before the target responds A)Give original cost, then add something “extra” before the target responds + Principle: Reciprocity

7 Social validation, conformity Scarcity, Psychological reactance That’s Not All, Reciprocity Compliance in Action

8 Cialdini Quote “We need to begin with a systematic observation of a phenomenon that is effective, that works on people. The we take it to the laboratory to examine its psychological underpinnings, why it works the way it does. Then we take the new information into the natural environment to see if our new insights really represent the way the thing works in the real work. (Robert Cialdini on Full Cycle Social Psychology)


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