Presentation on theme: "WAS IMPERIALISM JUSTIFIED? After completing this Web Quest you will research the time period of 1890- 1917 and use that research to answer the essential."— Presentation transcript:
WAS IMPERIALISM JUSTIFIED? After completing this Web Quest you will research the time period of and use that research to answer the essential question.
IMPERIALISM MATRIX Use this matrix to help you organize your ideas. Make a decision before you start the Web Quest based on your prior knowledge and explain your reasoning in your packet. WISE FOOLISH WRONG RIGHT
CAUSES Below are the major reasons behind US Imperialism. Click on the picture to learn about each one in more detail. Resources Markets Military Strength Social Darwinism
RESOURCES Colonies offered a number of natural resources such as: 1. Tea 2. Rubber 3. Iron 4. Petroleum Colonies used for their resources are known as: extractive economies because the imperialist nation extracted (removed) the raw materials to become more powerful. Click on the star to view a map of resources and where they can be found around the world.
MARKETS The United States had a large amount of resources, but a surplus of goods (too many goods). Having a large supply of goods led to a drop in prices and decreased profits. A major cause of US imperialism was to find new places for US businesses to sell their goods. According to Senator Albert J. Beveridge: Today we are raising more (crops) than we can consume. Today we are making more than we can use…Therefore we must find new markets for our produce, new occupation for our capital, new work for our labor.
MILITARY STRENGTH Many nations built up their military and the US was no exception. According to Alfred T. Mahan, nations with large navies were powerful. He urged the US to build a fleet. The US had to expand to find more bases where ships could refuel and replenish their supplies. By the end of imperialism, the US had the 3 rd largest navy in the world. Click on the star to view a map of US military bases around the world.
SOCIAL DARWINISM A major justification of imperialism was Social Darwinism. According to this theory, many felt their nations were superior to others and deserved to rule over “inferior” people. These people felt that it was their responsibility to “educate” the inferior people of the world and teach them about culture, religion, education, and the government.
FOOLISH WISE WRONG RIGHT Now that you have learned about the causes of US Imperialism, plot each cause on the matrix.
AMERICAN INVOLVEMENT The following events moved the United States closer to being an imperial power. Click on the bubble to learn more about each one. Commodore Perry in Japan Seward buys Alaska Attempts to influence Latin America Hawaii becomes a part of the US Steps toward US Imperialism
Commodore Perry in Japan Comm. Matthew Perry sailed warships to Japan and used the persuasion of the intimidating ships and gifts to convince the emperor to trade with the US. Click on the star to view an illustration of Perry’s visit.
Seward Purchases Alaska Secretary of State William Seward bought Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million dollars. Many were critical of the purchase because it was land of snow and ice so they called it “Seward’s Folly” and “Seward’s Icebox.” However, it turned out to be an excellent purchase because of the natural resources there such as oil and lumber, which proved very useful to industrialization. Click on the star to view more pictures related to Seward’s Purchase.
To the left, a copy of the check Seward used to purchase Alaska. To the right, a monument to Seward for his purchase. The monument says: “ William Henry Seward patriot and statesman as governor of New York United States senator and Secretary of State gave to the people of this country a long and useful life culminating in his purchase for them of the territory of Alaska on March 30, 1867”
Attempts to Influence Latin America Secretary of State James Blaine worked to create the First International Pan-American Conference. The purpose of the conference was to discuss the benefits of economic cooperation and to create the Pan-American Highway system that linked the US to Central and South America. Click on the star to read more about the First International Pan-American Conference.
Hawaii Becomes A State 1790s-Americans ships stopped at Hawaii to refuel -Missionaries established Christian schools & churches -American sugarcane plantations were located on the island 1887-American planters convinced Hawaii to limit voting rights to only wealthy landowners 1890s-A new tariff law imposed duties (similar to taxes) on sugar from Hawaii making it more expensive
-Hawaiian leader Kalakua died leaving Queen Liliuokalani in power (she was much less willing to work with the US than her brother) 1893-American planters overthrew the Queen resulting in a new government that wanted to annex Hawaii into the US (make Hawaii a territory of the US) -Attempts to annex Hawaii were stopped by the current President, Grover Cleveland 1898-Under the direction of a new president, and with the coming of war, Hawaii officially becomes a US territory Click on the star to learn more about Hawaii’s history and reaction to annexation.
FOOLISH WISE WRONG RIGHT Now that you have learned about the beginnings US Imperialism, plot each event on the matrix.
SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR At this time, Cuba was a Spanish colony. Quickly, Cubans became unhappy with Spanish rule and called for revolt. The US had a decision to make: Get involved and become an imperialist nation or Stay neutral. Below are the major aspects of the Spanish- American War. Click on a box to learn more about each one. CAUSES BATTLES EFFECTS
Causes 1.Cubans rebelled against Spanish rule- threatening the $50 million dollars US businesses had invested in Cuba. 2.Yellow Press-American journalists helped fuel extreme nationalism by publishing stories that were exaggerated. One in particular, was the publishing of the De Lome letter. 3.Explosion of the Maine (a battleship stationed outside of Cuba to protect American citizens). Click on the stars to learn more about the De Lome letter and the explosion of the Maine.
Battles BattleExplanationOutcome PhilippinesThe US attacked the Philippines (also controlled by the Spanish) with the help of Filipino nationalist, Emilio Aguinaldo. No Americans died during the battle and it was ruled a complete success. 1 st Landing in Cuba US forces landed in Cuba & quickly captured Guantanamo Bay. It was a quick, and easy success for the US. Battle of San Juan Hill The Rough Riders fought for San Juan Hill & quickly moved into Santiago where the Spanish surrendered. An important success. Although the battles may have been easily won, American soldiers did face hardships. Click on the star to see what they were.
Effects Treaty of Paris: This agreement officially ended the war. Click on the link to read about the provisions. The United States had the opportunity to gain a lot of new territory. However, many debated whether or not they truly wanted to become an imperialist nation. Those in favor believed it was the responsibility of the US to help weaker nations and it would be a profitable way to increase trade. Those opposed believed it was a crime that went against democratic ideals. Click on the star to learn more about what the US gained as a result of the war.
FOOLISH WISE WRONG RIGHT Now that you have learned about the Spanish American War, plot this event on the matrix.
JAPAN PHILIPPINES CHINA PANAMA CANAL CUBA PUERTO RICO JAPAN PHILIPPINES CHINA PUERTO RICO CUBA PANAMA CANAL US TERRITORIES Click on each of the boxes below to learn more about US involvement in these areas of the globe.
Philippines In 1899, Filipino rebels led by former US ally Emilio Aguinaldo launched an uprising to fight US occupation of the Philippines. The American response was swift & brutal. Villages were burned, crops were destroyed, and rebels were lined up and shot. When William Taft became the governor general of the Philippines things changed. He worked to rebuild the islands in a three-pronged plan. Political ReformHealthcareEducation In 1901 Taft granted the Philippines limited self- rule. In 1916 Congress passed the Jones Act which promised the Philippines they would eventually become independent. US administrators started a public health system. As part of this, American doctors came to help many who were injured during the rebellion. American programs were created to build schools for Filipino children. American teachers came to educate the children of the Philippines.
China At this time, European countries were building a “sphere of influence” in China. This meant that the countries would take over a small part of China and there they had access to ports and markets. The United States did not have it’s “zone” and thus they did not have access to any of this. US official John Hay proposed the Open Door Policy to combat this. According to the Open Door Policy, the US would have free trade in any part of China. At first, China refused, but in 1900 a group of angry Chinese revolted against the European powers there. This was known as the Boxer Rebellion. As a result, China was forced to accept in exchange for damages caused by the rebellion.
Japan When Russia moved troops closer to China, Japan felt threatened and attacked the troops. This led to the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War. In 1905 representatives from both countries met in the US to work out a peace agreement with the help of President Roosevelt. Although this was a success, there was still tension in the US due to the discrimination against the Japanese. (an example of this is when San Francisco tried to segregate Asian children and send them to a separate school). To calm the tension, Roosevelt negotiated the “Gentlemen’s Agreement” with Japan. According to this agreement the US would end it’s segregation policy and Japan would limit the number of immigrants it sent to the US.
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico became a US territory during the Spanish- American War. Until 1900, Puerto Rico was ruled by US military forces. In 1900, the US granted Puerto Rico more freedom by passing the Foraker Act. According to this, Puerto Rico was granted to “rule themselves” with a civil government. The governor of Puerto Rico would be chosen by the US president and Puerto Ricans could vote for the rest of the legislature or ruling body. This led to a debate over the citizenship rights that Puerto Ricans had in the US. After a series of Supreme Court cases it was decided that although Puerto Ricans did have to pay taxes to the US, they did not have the same rights as a US citizen.
Cuba When the US first began the Spanish-American War, they promised not to imperialize Cuba and grant them independence. However, the US did not remove its military right away and when it did, it left the Platt Amendment. The Platt Amendment restricted the rights of Cubans. Some ways rights were restricted were: 1.Cuba could not sign a treaty with any other nation without US approval. 2.Cuba was forced to lease naval stations to the US. 3.The US kept the right to “intervene” at any time to preserve Cuba.
Panama Canal The US purchased the route across Panama from France for $40 million dollars. The route was to be the place of the Panama Canal that the US could use for both economic and military travel. Although the US owned that land, they could not build because Panama was controlled by Columbia. To counter this, the US sent warships to support a Panamanian rebellion against Cuba. Once Panama was independent, the US was free to build a canal and in exchange they paid Panama $10 million dollars and $250,000 annually for rent.
FOOLISH WISE WRONG RIGHT Now that you have learned about the different US territories during Imperialism, think about how the US handled each situation and plot each territory on the matrix.
PRESIDENTIAL POLICIES During the time of Imperialism three presidents served in office. Each had different ideas about American foreign policy. Click on each president below to learn more about their policies. THEODORE ROOSEVELT WOODROW WILSON WILLIAM H. TAFT
Theodore Roosevelt “Big Stick Diplomacy” President Roosevelt’s philosophy is characterized by the phrase “Speak softly and carry a big stick.” According to this policy, Roosevelt believed in maintaining a strong, powerful, military presence and in doing so, many countries would recognize the power of the US. Roosevelt believed in military intervention meaning the US would serve as a police power and restore order. An example of his philosophy is the Roosevelt Corollary. According to this, Roosevelt claimed that no European country should intervene in Latin America because the US would maintain order. This plan was not popular with many Latin American countries because they believed the US should not be involved in their affairs. Click on the star to view a political cartoon about Roosevelt’s “Big Stick Diplomacy.”
William Howard Taft “Dollar Diplomacy” President Taft’s philosophy was focused on expanding American trade. Rather than focusing on the military, Taft planned to increase American investments in banks and businesses outside the US. Under Taft, America invested in plantations, mines, oil wells, railways, etc.
Woodrow Wilson “Moral Diplomacy” President Wilson’s philosophy was quite different from the other two. Rather than searching for new territory or new interests, Wilson’s focus was on human rights. Wilson wanted to help nations reach new goals and opportunities. Unfortunately, while Wilson’s intentions may have been genuine, the outcome was not always as such. At times, Wilson’s foreign policy led to a lot of US control over a particular country.
FOOLISH WISE WRONG RIGHT Now that you have learned about the presidential policies during the time of Imperialism, plot each policy on the matrix.
FOOLISH WISE WRONG RIGHT WAS IMPERIALISM JUSTIFIED? Based on your research of US Imperialism, I would like you to plot United States Imperialism on the matrix. You will use your research to respond to the focus question in a three paragraph essay.