Taxonomy Phylum: Apicomplexa Class: Conoidasida Subclass: Coccidiasina Order: Eucoccidiorida Suborder: Eimeriorin Family: Cryptosporidiidae Genus: Cryptosporidium *The Different Species are of particular interest
Cryptosporidium parvum Zoonotic, or animal adapted Majority of human disease Infects both ruminants (cattle, sheep, goats, deer) and humans human-to-human and zoonotic transmission pathways
Cryptosporidium hominis Previously known as C. parvum –Recent genetic discoveries have revealed small differences in the genome Infects mostly humans Transmitted from human to humans –Zoonotic pathways have not been observed
Cryptosporidiosis Symptoms –Diarrhea –Abdominal pain –Nausea –Fever –Fatigue Can be life-threatening in immunocompromised
A few more facts… was the first reported case of Cryptosporidiosis 1993-the largest outbreak of waterborne illness in US history. –Milwaukee, WI –400,000 infected
Facts cont’d Prevalence –90% of sewage samples –75% of river waters –28% of drinking water Resistance –Small size (4-6μm) evade sand filters –Disinfectants
Giardia lamblia (G. duodenalis, G. intestinalis) Most Common in children Cyst contaminated water Zoonotic with deer, rodents, household pets, or cattle being carriers
Giardiasis Symptoms –Diarrhea –Cramps –Anorexia –Can be chronic
Facts Larger than 7-10 by 8-12 μm Disinfectants still useless Sand-filtering usually removes them
Canada Goose and Protozoans… Where’s the Connection?
Research Strong correlation –B. Canadensis and Cryptosporidium Documented Carriers
A bit more research… Relatively knew –Only handful of studies Contradictory information Controversial Still many unanswered questions
Let me pose a couple (think know and answer later) Why are oocysts dormant in the goose GI tract and not ours? Is it really a serious problem, and if so, should the Canada Goose be held responsible?
Studies Fecal droppings of migratory Canada geese, were collected from nine sites near the Chesapeake Bay Were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia
C. parvum found at 7 of the 9 sites Giardia found at all 9 Remember…these two are both thought to be zoonotic (disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans) The pathogenesis of the oocysts were tested in mice –Each inoculated with approximately 9.0 × 10 4 oocysts –Intestines revealed developmental stages of C.Parvum
This appears to be a problem! Many are jumping to conclusions!
For example… A study was conducted by the following: –Monmouth County Health Department –Monmouth University –Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene & Public Health Blame the C. Goose for many health problems
Their numbers 1999: 10,000 geese x 1.5 lbs./day x 365 days/yr. = 2,737.5 Tons manure In N.J., the C. Goose population doubles every 7 years. Keeping this in mind, they estimated that this year, the numbers will look like this: 20,000 geese x 1.5 lbs./day x 365 days/yr. = 5,475 Tons manure If the C. Goose is the main culprit for spreading the pathogens (as Monmouth County assumes), than something must be done to prevent widespread infection.
A golf example…
Giardiasis Prevention Wash hands with soap and water after using the toilet and before handling food Boil your drinking water for 1 minute Avoid areas that are heavily contaminated with goose feces Wash hands and feet after being in an area that is contaminated. Take care not to track contamination into your home. Do not swim in a pool that is frequented by waterfowl. Pool chlorination does not kill the giardia cysts.
Cryptosporidiosis - Prevention Wash hands with soap and water after using the toilet and before handling food Boil drinking water for 1 minute Avoid areas that are heavily contaminated with goose feces Be careful not to track contamination into your home Do not swim in a pool that is frequented by waterfowl Stay away from domestic and farm animals- especially young animals with diarrhea
Does the Canada Goose REALLY deserve most of the blame?
Prevalence of Pathogenic Genotypes 13 sites in Ohio and Illinois Analysis of fecal droppings (209 specimens) for Crypt. Genotypes –Crypt. Goose Type 1 and Type 2 –Crypt. Duck –Crypt. Hominis and Parvum(zoonotic types) PCR to analyze SSU rRNA gene for bp differences.
The results… 49 of 209 positive Crypt. Goose Type 1 in 36 Crypt. Goose Type 2 in 9 Crypt. Duck Type found for the first time! Crypt. Hominis and Crypt. Parvum were found a combined 5 times. That’s only about 10%!
The implications The majority of the genotypes found are not zoonotic. –Goose genotypes are probably actually parasitic to the Geese, but the pathogencity is not known This study shows the Canada goose as merely an accidental carrier of the infectious types.
Conclusion Very new stuff Still being studied Many other variables Canada Goose DO contribute –Extent is still uncertain
Questions revisited Why are oocysts dormant in the goose GI tract and not ours? Is it really a serious problem, and if so, should the Canada Goose be held responsible?