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Cryptosporidium parvum

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Presentation on theme: "Cryptosporidium parvum"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cryptosporidium parvum
Maureen Ndambuki Veranja Liyanarachchi Evalyne Njeri

2 CLASSIFICATION Domain: Eukaryota Kingdom: Chromalveota
Superphylum: Alveolata Phylum: Apicomplexa Class: conoidasida Subclass: Coccidiasina Order: Eucoccidiarida Suborder: Eimeriorina Family: Cryptosporidiiae Genus: Cryptosporidium Species C. parvum

3 HOSTS Definitive hosts: Not host specific but able to infect mammals e.g. humans Intermediate: None Reservoir: calves, sheep, fish, birds, turkeys

4 Cryptosporidium parvum
Protozoan parasite of phylum apicomplexa Apicomplexans are a large group of eukaryotic organisms that are unicellular spore forming parasites of humans Small cocci (2μm-6μm) Opportunistic parasite Zoonotic-found in many mammalian species including cows, birds, reptiles, fishes and also humans Causes acute short term infection in humans Affects the hosts gastrointestinal and respiratory epithelial cells

5 Epidemiology Infection occurs through fecal oral contamination.
Human-human Animal-human waterborne Causes Cryptosporodiasis which is watery diarrhea

6 Morphological forms Oocysts=infective stage
Sporozoites= infective and diagnostic -each contains one nucleus 3. Trophozoite 4. Type 1 meront 5. Type II meront 6. Microgamont 7. Macrogamont

7 Oocysts 4μ-5μ microns wide One oocyst contains 4 fusiform sporozoites
Infective for 2-6 months in the enviroment Are released with fecal matter during onset of the symptoms They are shed 5 days after infection Incubation period is between days


9 Clinical symptoms Can be asymptomatic thus go undetected
Watery diarrhea Abdominal cramps Nausea Low grade fever Dehydration Weight loss

10 Target group Healthy individuals Young children
Immunocompromised e.g. Aids and HIV

11 Drinking dirty water leads to

12 Complications Severe dehydration leading to death Pancreatitis
Hypertrophic gastritis Respiratory tract infections (AIDS patients)

13 Geographic prevalence
This parasite is found worldwide mostly in warm climates First human case was reported in 1976 1993, waterborne outbreak in Milwaukee that affected more than 400,000 people who died in 2 weeks due to contamination of water treatment plants -inside-me-cryptosporidium-outbreak.html

14 Geographic distribution

15 Diagnosis Oocysts found in fecal sample
This is done through floatation in formalin- ethyl acetate and hypertonic sodium chloride followed by ziehl-Neelson staining method cryptosporidium sp. oocysts stained with Ziehl-Neelson modified acid-fast. Right: Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts stained with safranin

16 Pathogenesis In AIDS patients
Profuse watery diarrhea lasting several months with 6-25 bowel movements per day Severe dehydration which could lead to death In other immunocompromised/immunocompetent patients infection is less severe. some have no symptoms while others have less frequent diarrhea and abdominal cramps lasting 1-10days

17 Treatment Healthy people with strong immune system recover without treatment Nitazoxamide-most effective paromomycin Drinking plenty of fluids Fluid therapy for babies Anti-retroviral therapy for Aids patients Anti-motility drugs Adding electrolytes to body e.g. drinking getorade

18 Control Water filtration and purification Boiling water
Washing vegetables and fruits Bottled water for travellers Water inspection/analysis Wash hands after using the bathroom or handling fecal material Iodized water Avoiding sexual practices that involve fecal oral contact

19 Review Questions 1. What are the two morphological forms?
2. What are the three modes of transmission for cryptosporidium? 3. How does cryptosporidium enter the body? 4. Name the definitive and intermediate host 5. What are the symptoms of the disease?

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