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Cryptosporidium parvum Maureen Ndambuki Veranja Liyanarachchi Evalyne Njeri.

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Presentation on theme: "Cryptosporidium parvum Maureen Ndambuki Veranja Liyanarachchi Evalyne Njeri."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cryptosporidium parvum Maureen Ndambuki Veranja Liyanarachchi Evalyne Njeri

2 CLASSIFICATION  Domain:Eukaryota  Kingdom:Chromalveota  Superphylum:Alveolata  Phylum:Apicomplexa  Class:conoidasida  Subclass:Coccidiasina  Order:Eucoccidiarida  Suborder:Eimeriorina  Family:Cryptosporidiiae  Genus:Cryptosporidium  SpeciesC. parvum

3 HOSTS  Definitive hosts: Not host specific but able to infect mammals e.g. humans  Intermediate: None  Reservoir: calves, sheep, fish, birds, turkeys

4 Cryptosporidium parvum  Protozoan parasite of phylum apicomplexa  Apicomplexans are a large group of eukaryotic organisms that are unicellular spore forming parasites of humans  Small cocci (2μm-6μm)  Opportunistic parasite  Zoonotic-found in many mammalian species including cows, birds, reptiles, fishes and also humans  Causes acute short term infection in humans  Affects the hosts gastrointestinal and respiratory epithelial cells

5 Epidemiology  Infection occurs through fecal oral contamination.  Human-human  Animal-human  waterborne  Causes Cryptosporodiasis which is watery diarrhea

6 Morphological forms 1.Oocysts=infective stage 2.Sporozoites= infective and diagnostic -each contains one nucleus 3. Trophozoite 4. Type 1 meront 5. Type II meront 6. Microgamont 7. Macrogamont

7 Oocysts  4μ-5μ microns wide  One oocyst contains 4 fusiform sporozoites  Infective for 2-6 months in the enviroment  Are released with fecal matter during onset of the symptoms  They are shed 5 days after infection  Incubation period is between 1-14 days

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9 Clinical symptoms  Can be asymptomatic thus go undetected  Watery diarrhea  Abdominal cramps  Nausea  Low grade fever  Dehydration  Weight loss

10 Target group  Healthy individuals  Young children  Immunocompromised e.g. Aids and HIV

11 Drinking dirty water leads to

12 Complications  Severe dehydration leading to death  Pancreatitis  Hypertrophic gastritis  Respiratory tract infections (AIDS patients)

13 Geographic prevalence  This parasite is found worldwide mostly in warm climates  First human case was reported in 1976  1993, waterborne outbreak in Milwaukee that affected more than 400,000 people who died in 2 weeks due to contamination of water treatment plants  -inside-me-cryptosporidium-outbreak.html -inside-me-cryptosporidium-outbreak.html

14 Geographic distribution

15 Diagnosis  Oocysts found in fecal sample  This is done through floatation in formalin- ethyl acetate and hypertonic sodium chloride followed by ziehl-Neelson staining method

16 Pathogenesis  In AIDS patients  Profuse watery diarrhea lasting several months with 6-25 bowel movements per day  Severe dehydration which could lead to death  In other immunocompromised/immunocompetent patients  infection is less severe.  some have no symptoms while others have less frequent diarrhea and abdominal cramps lasting 1-10days

17 Treatment  Healthy people with strong immune system recover without treatment  Nitazoxamide-most effective  paromomycin  Drinking plenty of fluids  Fluid therapy for babies  Anti-retroviral therapy for Aids patients  Anti-motility drugs  Adding electrolytes to body e.g. drinking getorade

18 Control  Water filtration and purification  Boiling water  Washing vegetables and fruits  Bottled water for travellers  Water inspection/analysis  Wash hands after using the bathroom or handling fecal material  Iodized water  Avoiding sexual practices that involve fecal oral contact

19 Review Questions  1. What are the two morphological forms?  2. What are the three modes of transmission for cryptosporidium?  3. How does cryptosporidium enter the body?  4. Name the definitive and intermediate host  5. What are the symptoms of the disease?


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