6 John Melish, Map of the U.S. with the contiguous British and Spanish Possessions,1816
7 Melish’s comments on his 1816 map of the United States To present the country this way was desirable... The map shows at a glance the whole extent of the United States territory from sea to sea. In tracing the probable expansion of the human race from east to west, the mind finds an agreeable resting place on its western limits. The view is complete and leaves nothing to be wished for. It also adds to the beauty and symmetry of the map. Source: John Melish. Map of the United States with the contiguous British and Spanish Possessions. Philadelphia, 1816.
8 What is “Manifest Destiny?” Belief that the US should expand its territory from coast to coast It was “obvious” that the United States should expand its territory if it was to become the greatest nation in the world 1.Belief that white Americans had a God-given right to occupy the entire North American continent. 2.Manifest Destiny was exercised in 1492 by Christopher Columbus and the Spanish monarchs. 3.Pilgrim Fathers when they landed at Plymouth Rock in 1620. 4.Any act of colonization and settlement at the expense of another race can be said to be an expression of Manifest Destiny.
9 Manifest Destiny & Western settlement Once the concept had been given the name 'Manifest Destiny' it became the leading reason for westward expansion The Preemption Act of 1841 (Tyler)—U.S. gov’t allowed “squatters” (aka “preempters”) on federal lands in the Plains (West) to purchase land for $1.25/acre – widely used by settlers in Kansas and Nebraska Territories (which were opened to settlement in 1854) The Homestead Act of 1862 (Lincoln)—first of a series of federal acts that gave those who applied a grant of 160 acres of unused federal land, called a “homestead” – Initially proposed as part of Northern “Free Soil” policies, rather than expanding plantations – Not open to Confederates; freed slaves and women could claim land – Had to build a house and live on the land for at least 5 years
10 US Territorial Expansion When? 1783 From Where? Why? Treaty of Paris 1783 with Britain (American Revolution) A A - 13 Original Colonies
11 US Territorial Expansion When? 1783 From where? Britain Why? Part of the result of the Treaty of Paris 1783; includes Northwest Territory A B B - Western Lands
12 US Territorial Expansion When? 1803 From where? France Why? Napoleon needed money to continue funding war in Europe Jefferson really only wanted New Orleans for economic reasons Instead, purchased all of this land (not completely constitutional) A B C - Louisiana Purchase C
13 US Territorial Expansion When? 1819 From where? Spain Why? Andrew Jackson invaded Florida (although not condoned by Monroe) Spain sold it to U.S. for $5 mil., rather than go to war A B D - Florida D C
14 Think: Why weren’t Americans happy with the size of their country at this point in their history?
15 US Territorial Expansion When? 1845 From where? Republic of Texas (independent country; once part of Mexico) Why? Texas claims independence from Mexico 1836 Northerners feared another slave state Fears overcome in 1844 Presidential election A B E - Texas D C E
16 Key Figures in Texas Independence, 1836 Sam Houston (1793-1863) Stephen Austin (1793-1836)
17 Texas Independence In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain and encouraged Mexicans and Americans to move to the region called “Texas” – The Spanish government tried to attract Spanish setters to Texas, few took the offer Only about 4,000 Tejanos (people of Spanish heritage who consider Texas their home) lived in Texas. American Moses Austin had prior permission to start a colony in Texas; Americans just had to follow Spanish laws. – Moses dies 1821, son Stephen takes over
18 Stephen Austin, Texans, and 1829 With independence, Mexican gov’t says Austin and Americans must become Mexican citizens, follow Catholicism, learn Spanish. – 1821-1827, Austin attracts 297 families; success attracts U.S. land speculators, settlers to Texas – By 1830, 30,000 Americans, outnumber Tejanos 6:1 In 1829, the Mexican government outlawed slavery, close state to Americans, start taxing Texans – Settlers want to keep slaves on their cotton plantations – Americans refused to learn Spanish, follow Mexican laws, convert to Catholicism Mexican president, General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna sends Mexican troops to Texas – Texans began talk of independence from Mexico – Austin jailed for refusal to cede power to military; Texans revolt
19 Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie: End of the legend Santa Anna led 6,000 troops to Texas to put down the revolt; first battle takes place at an old Spanish mission called the Alamo 183 Texans take on 1,800 Mexican soldiers; hold the Alamo 12 days – men not killed in the battle were executed by Santa Anna Texans shocked by the slaughter at the Alamo and vowed independence
20 Battle at San Jacinto: “Remember the Alamo!” Santa Anna had over 300 more Texans executed – Texan general Sam Houston gathered 800 troops, including Tejanos, settlers, volunteers, and free and enslaved African Americans. At the town of San Jacinto, the Texans defeat half of the Mexican army in 18 minutes – Santa Anna forced to sign a treaty granting Texas independence. – Texas an independent country In 1836, Texas declared itself The Lone Star Republic. – Sam Houston as President – Some wanted Texas to be part of the U.S., but Pres. Van Buren refused the request afraid of Texas as a slave state, war with Mexico
21 US Territorial Expansion When? 1846 From where? Great Britain Why? Claimed by four countries (Britain, Russia, Spain, US) Americans demanded “54°40’ or fight!” Britain compromised at 49° A B F - Oregon Territory D C E F
22 Oregon Territory 1840-1860: 250,000 move west “Oregon Fever” promise of free land Hardships faced by many of those heading west Hardships New roles for women The Oregon Trail Donner Party Donner Party
23 US Territorial Expansion When? 1848 Where? Mexico Why? President James K. Polk offers to buy land from Mexico & they refuse War! (next class) In Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, US offers $15 million for land A B G - Mexican Cession D C E F G