Presentation on theme: "Immigration, Expansion, and Sectional Conflict"— Presentation transcript:
1 Immigration, Expansion, and Sectional Conflict 1840-1848 Chapter 13Immigration, Expansion, and Sectional Conflict
2 Introduction (cont.)In the 1840’s, many American believed it was the “manifest destiny” of the U.S.A. to possess North America from coast to coastActing on that belief, the administration of James K. Polk between 1845 and 1849:Annexed TexasDivided the Oregon Territory with GBFought the Mexican WarResulting in the conquest of CA and NM
3 Introduction (cont.)Also in the 1840’s and 1850’s a rising tide of new immigrants entered the countryExpansion and immigration were linkedThe overwhelming Democratic Party leaders saw the acquisition of more land and a return to a republic of self-sufficient farmersA way of relieving growing class, ethnic, and sectional conflictsAdding OR would please the NorthAdding TX would please the South
4 Introduction (cont.)In fact, westward expansion had the opposite effectIt sharpened sectional strifeSplit the Democratic PartySet the nation on the path to the Civil War
5 Introduction (cont.)1.) How did immigration in the 1840’s influence the balance of power between the Whig and Democratic Parties 2.) What economic and political forces fed westward expansion during the 1840’s 3.) How did westward expansion threaten war with Britain and Mexico 4.) How did the outcome of the Mexican-American War intensify intersectional conflict?
6 Introduction Newcomers and Natives Between 1840 and 1860 4.2 million immigrants entered the U.S.A.2 biggest groups came from Ireland and the German states
7 Expectations and Realities (cont.) By 1860Irish and Germans accounted for about 50% of the populations in the following cities:St. LouisNew YorkChicagoCincinnatiMilwaukeeDetroitSan Francisco
8 The IrishBetween 1815 and 1844 almost 1 million Irish entered the U.S.A.Most were Catholic, poor, and seeking greater economic opportunityFromRoughly 2 million arrivedOverwhelming CatholicFleeing from the potato famine in IrelandThey usually entered the urban work force at the bottomCompeted for jobs with equally poor blacks
9 The Irish (cont.)The competition for jobs between the Irish and poor blacks led to animosity between the 2 groupsMade most Irish hostile to abolition and abolitionistsThose Irish who rose to the level of skilled and semi-skilled workers competed against native-born, white, Protestant mechanicsCaused another level of hostilitiesEthnic and religious
10 Anti-Catholicism, Nativism, and Labor Protest Know-Nothing PartyA.k.a. American PartyMostly white, Protestant, native-born workersanti-Catholic and anti-immigrantOhio History link on Know Nothing PartyPlayed a significant political role in the 1850’s
11 Immigrant PoliticsAlmost all Irish and German immigrants became supporters of the Democratic PartyAntiprivilege partyMore sympathetic to the common man than the WhigsThey also resented Whig connections with the temperance movement and nativismThe Irish suspected the northern Whigs of antislavery viewsIrish feared economic competition from emancipated slavesThey wanted no part of abolitionism
15 The American Settlement of Texas to 1835 In the 1820’s the Mexican govt. gave generous land grants to Americansencouraged their settlement in TXa way to guard against Indian attackshasten the economic development of the provinceMany Americans cameMostly from southern statesIn the 1830’s, Mexican govt. attempted to end American immigration and prohibit slavery in TX
16 The American Settlement of Texas to 1835 (cont.) Its efforts antagonized the Americans but failed to stop the flood of immigrantsBy 1836 the American population in TX was 30,000 free and 5,000 slaves
17 The American Settlement of Texas to 1835 (cont.) Santa AnnaNew president-dictator of Mexico1834Started to tighten his hold on TXThe Americans in the province rebelled
18 The Texas Revolution, 1836 Fall of 1835 Santa Anna led an army into TX to suppress the uprisingThe Mexicans defeated the Americans at the Alamo and at Goliad
20 The Texas Revolution, 1836 (cont.) In April 1836Sam HoustonLed the American route against the Mexicans at San JacintoTook Santa Anna prisonerForced him to sign a treaty granting TX independenceThe Mexican govt. later refused to ratify the treatyBut TX remained independent
21 American Settlements in CA, NM, and OR (cont.) In the 1830’s, American missionaries entered Oregon’s Willamette Valley to attempt to convert the Indians thereThe missionaries’ glowing reports of the territory’s climate and resources aroused keen interest back in the U.S.A.
22 The Overland TrailsIn the 1840’s, 14,000 Americans joined wagon trains on the overland trails (or the OR and CA trails)Headed for OR or CAProblems:Faulty maps and guidebooksFears of Indian attacks
24 The Politics of Expansion, 1840-1846 IntroductionAt the start of 1840’s, western expansion was not an important political issueOnly after politicians failed to deal effectively with troubling economic issues did some of these leaders seize on expansion as a primary goal
25 The Whig Ascendancy The Whig Party won the election of 1840 William Henry HarrisonThe Party planned to enact Clay’s American system of a new national bank, protective tariffs, and federal aid for internal improvements
26 The Whig Ascendancy (cont.) Harrison died after only 1 month in the White HouseVP was John TylerTyler was a states’ rights VirginianVetoed all the economic measures Congress passedCreated tension in the Whig party
27 Tyler and the Annexation of Texas Tyler supported the U.S. annexation of TexasAppointed John C. Calhoun as his secretary of stateDraw up a treaty with Mexico to annex TX
28 Tyler and the Annexation of Texas (cont.) Calhoun wrote undiplomatically that one reason for annexation was to provide more territory for the expansion and protection of slaveryThis added fuel to already existing northern suspicions that acquiring TX was part of a southern conspiracy to expand slaveryThe Senate rejected Tyler and Calhoun’s annexation treaty
29 The Election of 1844 Whigs nominated Henry Clay Democrats nominated James PolkMajor issue of annexation of TX
30 The Election of 1844 (cont.) Henry Clay waved on annexation James Polk First opposed it as sectionally divisiveHis shifts lost southern votes to Democrats and northern antislavery votes to the LibertyJames PolkExpansionistCalled for admitting TX immediatelyMany Irish and other recent immigrants voted for PolkThey disliked the Whigs’ association with nativism, temperance, and anti-CatholicismPolk won in a close election
31 Manifest Destiny, 1845Expansionism had become a popular cause by the 1840’sMany expansionists said it was “manifest destiny” to the U.S.A. to spread its experiment in liberty and self-govt. from coast to coastJohn L. O’Sullivan developed the phrase of “manifest destiny”Expansionists eyed the excellent harbors of CA and ORNatural outlets for American trade with Asia
32 Manifest Destiny, 1845 (cont.) Expansionists argued that acquiring additional fertile soil would safeguard the U.S. future as a democratic republic of self-sufficient farmersCombat the social stratification and class strife that accompanied industrialization and urbanizationThese ideas, carried in the penny press, strongly appealed to struggling immigrants in the cities
33 Polk and Oregon Polk wanted OR during the 1844 campaign Manifest Destiny placed OR in its sightsNeither GB or U.S.A. wanted a war over ORThey settled for a compromise treatySplit OR at the 49th parallelSenate ratified the treaty in 1846
34 The Mexican-American War and Its Aftermath, 1846-1848 The Origins of the Mexican-American WarIn Feb. 1845, Congress passed a joint resolution to annex TXMexico never recognized the independence of TXTX claimed that its southern boundary was the Rio GrandeMexico contented that it was the Nueces River (100 miles to the northeast)Polk’s support encouraged Texas to accept annexation on July 4, 1845
35 The Origins of the Mexican-American War (cont.) Polk also wanted to gain CA and NMHe sent John Slidell to Mexico with an offer to buy them for $25 millionMexico refused
36 The Origins of the Mexican-American War (cont.) Polk ordered American troops into the disputed region south of the Nueces RiverLed by Zachary TaylorPolk hoped to provoke a war that would give the U.S. a chance to seize CA and NM
37 The Origins of the Mexican-American War (cont.) When Mexican troops clashed with Taylor’s, Polk told Congress that Mexico had forced war with the U.S.
38 The Origins of the Mexican-American War (cont.)
39 The Mexican-American War Feb. 1847Taylor defeated a Mexican army at the Battle of Buena VistaColonel Stephen Kearnytook NMCommodores John D. Sloat and David Stockon and army officers Kearny and John C. FremontTook CAcombined naval and land assaults
40 The Mexican-American War (cont.) General Winfield ScottCaptured Mexico CityMexico surrendered Sept. 1847Treaty of Guadalupe HidalgoMexico accepted the Rio Grande boundaryMexico Ceded to U.S.A. almost all of the present-day U.S. southwest regionU.S.A. paid $15 millionU.S.A. promised to pay claims of U.S. citizens against Mexico
42 The War’s Effects on Sectional Conflict Patriotism was generated by the warSectional conflict grew though between 1846 and 1848The Polk administration angered the North and West by lowering tariffs and vetoing federal aid for internal improvements
43 The War’s Effects on Sectional Conflict (cont.) Most important, arguments began over the expansion of slavery in the Mexican cessionNorthern Democrats worried that the western expansion of slavery would close out opportunities for free laborers in the West and worsen class antagonism in the East
44 The Wilmot Proviso 1846 David Wilmot Northern DemocraticTacked on an appropriations bill an amendment that would bar slavery from the new territory acquired from MexicoPassed the House but not the SenateExtremist southerners led by Calhoun claimed it was unconstitutional for Congress to forbid slavery in any territory
45 The Election of 1848 Whigs nominated Zachary Taylor Democrats nominated Lewis CassTried to solve the sectional controversy by proposing popular sovereignty which would give settlers who lived in a territory the right to decide whether to permit slavery
46 The Election of 1848 (cont.) Free-Soil Party A faction of Democrats called Barnburners joined antislavery “conscience” Whigs and Liberty Party abolitionistsNominated Martin Van BurenOpposed to any further spread of slavery
47 The Election of 1848 (cont.) Taylor won the election A military heroposition on slavery was unknownThe good showing of the Free-Soilers in the North demonstrated the popular appeal of keeping slavery out of the West and using it as a place of opportunity for poor white men
48 The California Gold Rush Just before the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, an American carpenter living in CA discovered gold near SacramentoThe news quickly reached the eastProduced a rush of prospectorsCA’s population surgedThe weak military govt. proved unequal to containing the violence and disorder of the gold fields and mining boomtownsCalifornians demanded a civilian state govt.This brought to a head the issue of slavery in CA and the rest of the Mexican cession
50 ConclusionPolk during his one term, nearly led the U.S.A. into a war against Britain and did fight Mexico.The issue of the spread of slavery into the territories taken from Mexico fanned sectional strife and split the DemocratsMany northern Democrats joined others in 1848 to create the Free-Soil Party
51 The Compromise of 1850 Introduction When the treaty ending the Mexican War was signed in 1848, a delicate balance existed between free and slave states15 of eachAll the proposed solutions for handling slavery in the Mexican cession were controversialWhether to prohibit itOpen the whole area to slaveholdersExtend the Missouri Compromise line to the PacificOr apply popular sovereigntyOther issues also divided the North and SouthCA and UT asked Congress for admission to the Union as free states
53 IV. The Fugitive Slave Law was passed. Compromise of 1850I. California became a free state.II. The rest of the Mexican Cession was divided into two parts; Utah (UT) and New Mexico (NM).* people in UT and NM used popular sovereignty to decide on the slavery issueIII. The slave trade ended in Washington, D.C.IV. The Fugitive Slave Law was passed.
54 The Fugitive Slave Law• All Americans, by law, were required to help catch runaway slaves.• You could be fined and/or imprisoned for helping a runaway slave.• This law infuriated northerners!Cazenovia, MA, Fugitive Slave Law Convention held on 21 and 22 August 1850; Frederick Douglass is seated at the right side of the table.
55 Kansas-Nebraska ActI. The Nebraska Territory was divided into two parts: Nebraska (NE) and Kansas (KS).
56 Kansas-Nebraska ActII. The people of each territory voted on whether or not to allow slavery. (popular sovereignty)
57 Kansas-Nebraska Act* The Kansas-Nebraska Act violated the Missouri Compromise. Both territories were north of 36,30’N and should NOT have been allowed to have slaves!
58 “Bleeding Kansas”Before the vote on slavery:• Northerners crossed the border to keep KS a free state.• Southerners crossed the border to make KS a slave state.• Both sides claimed victory on the vote!