Recruiting Diverse and Underserved Applicants Michael W. Kelly – The University of Iowa Krystal McCutchen – The University of New Mexico
Why does diversity matter? Students need to be in learning environments that reflect our diverse society To improve healthcare to the underserved and uninsured Broaden the research workforce Need for diversity among managers of health care organizations Cohen. JAMA 2003;289:1143-1149
How are we doing? Of the total number of students enrolled in first professional degree programs for fall 2012, … 12.4 percent were underrepresented minority students. 1 Racial makeup of US, 2010 census 2 White63.7% Black or African American12.6% Hispanic or Latino*16.3% Asian4.8% 1. http://www.aacp.org/about/pages/vitalstats.aspx 2. 2010 Census Briefs – Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010
Are we going to be supported? Washington Post-ABC News Poll –Do you support or oppose allowing universities to consider applicant’s race as a factor for deciding which students to admit? –Support – 22% –Oppose – 76% –No opinion – 2% Race-conscious admission policies may be the only way to develop a diverse student body
History of Affirmative Action 14 th Amendment to the Constitution –Adopted July 9, 1868 –Due process clause Safeguard from arbitrary denial of life, liberty or property by the government –Equal protection clause No state shall deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws –Basis of Brown vs. Board of Education Lakhan. BMC Med Educ 2003;3:1-6
History of Affirmative Action Executive Presidential Orders –1963 President Kennedy Stated that “discrimination based on race, creed, color or ethnicity is forbidden” Coined term “affirmative action” –1964 President Johnson Guaranteed “equal opportunity in federal employment” Later expanded to include college admission
History of Affirmative Action The Regents of the University of California v. Bakke –Heard by the Supreme Court –5-4 decision, June 28, 1978 –Ruled that the admission process at the Medical School at UC Davis was unconstitutional –Special program setting aside 16 spaces for “Blacks, Chicanos, Asians and American Indians” was a quota system –End of quotas
History of Affirmative Action Grutter v. Bollinger –Supreme Court 5-4 decision, June 23, 2003 –Ruled that the University of Michigan Law School had a compelling interest in promoting diversity –An admission process that considered race as well as other factors was not a quota system –Current basis for many admission policies
State Action on Affirmative Action Six states have adopted bans on affirmative action in state college admissions –Oklahoma, State Question 759, 2012 –Arizona, Proposition 107, 2010 –Nebraska, Initiative 424, 2008 –Michigan, Proposal 2, 2006 Overturned July 2011, US Court of Appeals –Washington, Initiative 200, 1998 –California, Proposition 209, 1996 National Conference of State Legislatures: http://www.ncsl.org/issues- research/educ/affirmative-action-state-action.aspx
Latest Supreme Court Ruling Fisher v. University of Texas –University of Texas has a two part admission process By legislative act admits any student that graduated in the top 10% of their high school class 12% of the admissions are based on an academic index and a personal adversity index that considers race, socio-economic status, and other factors –Plaintiffs wish to strike down race as a factor –Case heard by the US Supreme Court, October 2012 –Ruling announced June 2013
Latest Supreme Court Ruling What do we know now? How might this affect admissions and recruiting?
What is an Underserved Student? Student lacking proper preparation from K-12 education 1 First Generation Students –Family role models missing –Cultural understanding may be limited Students from a lower socioeconomic background Students from traditionally underrepresented minority groups Students from rural communities 1- Shorall, C. (2009). Hill Street Blues: Are you serving your underserved population?. US-China Education Review, 6(9), 57-66.
Not all high schools are the same High school course offerings College prep courses AP/Dual Credit/Honors courses differ Grading standards vary across districts Class size in various high schools
Geographic Factors Communities beyond the institution’s city –Ties into preparation in K-12 –Students from rural communities not wanting to go to the “big city” –Multiple schools in a similar distance from students –Knowledge of pharmacy as a career choice –Change in support roles
First Generation Students Parents have not attended or have not completed college –Unsure of the commitment to higher education –Miscommunication on purpose and value in higher education Near 50% of first-generation students drop out during freshman year of college –25% for overall student population 2 Length of time to complete is intimidating 2- National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2001). Students whose parents did not go to college: Postsecondary access, persistence and attainment (NCES 2001–126).
Cultural Diversity Not all cultures have the same value in education –Some traditional beliefs but more value on being in the home than gaining education –Students who are seeking education find themselves in unknown territory and change in family support –Role of pharmacy in the culture not understood
Socioeconomic Status Likely to be first generation college students 3 More difficulties with financing education Likely to postpone college or pursue lower degree options 4 Length of time for financing education 3- Cho, S., Hudley, C., Lee, S., Barry, L., & Kelly, M. (n.d). Roles of Gender, Race, and SES in the College Choice Process Among First-Generation and Nonfirst-Generation Students. Journal Of Diversity In Higher Education, 1(2), 95-107. 4- Niu, S., & Tienda, M. (2013). Delayed Enrollment and College Plans: Is There a Postponement Penalty?. Journal Of Higher Education, 84(1), 1-27
Underrepresented Minorities Viewed as harder to recruit –Relates to all factors currently discussed Move to expanding roles beyond family roles Shift in culture and social norms
Other ways to define the Underserved? Should we be considering how underserved is defined? Characteristics of an underserved student? How do you know they are underserved?
Admissions Factors We want to talk about your admissions factors –At your table discuss some of the questions provided
Results Were there commonalities between institutions? How do your admissions factors affect your underserved populations
Best Practices - UNM Pipeline Programs –Work with the Office of Diversity to engage students –Start as early as grade school –Lab activities (compounding) College and Career fairs –Attend as many as possible –Hands on activities for students –Use current students as ambassadors
UNM Continued Recruit in rural communities –Try to send the same recruiters each year –Develop relationships with the parents and students –Engage the high school in what pharmacy means Cooperative Pharmacy Program –Students from rural NM attend NMSU before moving to the big bad pharmacy school at UNM
More UNM Collaborate with other health sciences programs –Recruitment events –Career days Holistic Admissions Process Use Pharmacy students as ambassadors!
Best Practices - Iowa Pipeline Programs –Coordinate with our undergraduate admissions office for high school visits –Work with our Office of Equal Opportunity and Enrichment –Provide career simulations for visiting students
Best Practices - Iowa College Efforts –Standing Diversity Committee in College –Standing Diversity Committee among the health science colleges –Use scholarship monies to support diversity –Use grant monies to provide support for interview expenses –Work particularly with members of SNAPhA to help with recruiting
Best Practices - Iowa University Cultural Centers –Afro-American Cultural Center –Latino Native American Cultural Center –Asian-Pacific American Cultural Center –Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Resource Center
Best Practices - Iowa Sell the University’s diversity history –Iowa was the first public university in the nation to admit men and women on an equal basis –Iowa was first public US university to grant a law degree to a woman and an African American –First to put an African American on a varsity athletic squad –First public university to officially recognize the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender and Allied Union
Best Practices - Iowa Sell the community –Ranked one of the nation’s most livable cities by USA Today, Forbes, Outside and the National Geographic magazines –K-12 system is 40% not-white
Best Practices - Iowa Admission Procedures –Based on Grutter v. Bollinger ruling –All applicants reviewed by Associate Dean Interview invitations –No minimum PCAT score –2.5 minimum GPA –Admissions committee Holistic approach Reviews in light of University’s long standing commitment to diversity
Resources available What are the resources you have available for your students? Let’s talk together about those resources