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Grade 9 Open Religion HRE 101

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1 Grade 9 Open Religion HRE 101
Mrs. Micallef-Grande Workroom 320

2 Table of Contents Unit 1: Faith ……………………..3-27
Unit 2: Scripture …………………… Unit 3: Following Jesus …………………… Unit 4: Thirteen Reasons Why …………………… Unit 5: Narnia …

3 Unit 1: Faith & the Search for God
Students will learn: - The spiritual nature of human beings Definitions of faith Stages of faith development and how spiritual truth is a journey of discovery Multiple Intelligences and Faith Simon Birch Assignment

4 Trip or Journey? In your groups, brainstorm the difference between a ‘trip’ and a ‘journey’. Is ‘Religion’ in general, and this course in particular, a trip or a journey?

5 Trip or Journey? Journey:
Religion is discovering open questions which need life answers (answers which we discover by living them). Religion is a life-long search, with open-ended questions. Religion is waiting on the unexpected. Religion is looking at life with a new, fresh perspective. Religious language involves story telling about the ways in which God shares himself with people.

6 Trip or Journey? Trip Religion is finding answers to textbook questions. Religion gives students answers, facts, questions with definite answers. Religion involves learning the expected, the predictable. Religion is asking, “What am I supposed to believe?”

7 What is Faith? The Uncertainty Principle: A Scientific rule that suggests not everything can be explained through scientific method. Sometimes things happen that we can’t explain, or that we can’t ever truly explain. Can you think of an example of something we may never be able to prove scientifically?

8 The Shroud of Turin An example in uncertainty (and faith)
The Shroud is a 14½ foot long, 3½ foot wide linen cloth that bears the ventral and dorsal image of a scourged, crucified man. Owned by the Dukes of Savoy (former ruling family of Italy) until the late 1980's and now the property of the Catholic Church, it has been permanently kept in Turin, Italy, since It is stored in a special reliquary in a chapel behind the altar in the Cathedral of St. John the Baptist. The cathedral was erected specifically to house the Shroud and was built adjoining the Royal Palace (the King's former residence) in Turin.

9 Photo of the front

10 Photo Close-up of the Head






16 Definition of Faith Faith can be defined as believing that something is absolutely true without needing empirical (sensory) evidence. It is something you believe in your heart, not your head. However, faith can be informed through experience. E.g. You believe you will be a great dancer one day even before you start your first lesson in dance class.

17 Task Read pp.52 – 55 of the textbook
On a separate sheet of paper, answer the following questions: 1) Which person do you relate to the most and why? Explain your answer using personal detail. 2) Which person do you relate to the least and why? Explain your answer using personal detail. Response is due at the end of class

18 Catholic Definition of Faith
Faith for Catholics is to believe that God will support you and be with you in all your endeavors. To believe that God has an intention for your life and means for only good things to come from your life. It is believing that the object of your faith will do something for you – that object for Catholics (and all Christians) is God, and we have a long history of God’s actions in our life as a Christian community.

19 Simon Birch Simon Birch is a wonderful film that illustrates the journey Simon and his friend, Joe, go through and how their faith and friendship are tested. Complete the film worksheet during the movie and then prepare your rough draft and good copy of your letter. See assignment and rubric for details.

20 Faith Stages Faith develops in stages and grows deeper and more real with experiences you have. James Fowler, a theologian in the 80’s, described six stages of growth that lead to mature faith.

21 Faith Stages Stage 1: Imitative faith
At first faith comes from imitating the values and attitudes of significant persons in life Stage 2: Literal-minded faith - Religious information is taken literally and can become fundamental (without exception)

22 Faith Stages Stage 3: Conventional Faith pre-adolescence
They accept things about God because it is what the church teaches Don’t reflect or question much Stage 4: Reflective faith Adolescence Choices and values become a more personal commitment Start to establish what they truly think and believe

23 Faith Stages Stage 5: Paradoxical Faith Adulthood
A deeply mature faith that comes from maturity and experience A person can remain committed to a institution or church even in the face of their inadequacies and weaknesses without giving up its principles

24 Faith Stages Stage 6: Incarnational Faith
Most rare of all; people’s faith may develop to the point that their very lives become absorbed into God’s love Less self-seeking, they become visible signs of the meaning of life and God’s life on earth

25 Multiple Intelligences
Howard Gardiner (Harvard University) studied intelligence and discovered that people can be “smart” in different ways. He discovered that we seem to have eight (8) different forms of intelligence, each one varying in degree depending on our personal preferences.

26 Eight Intelligences Mathematical/Logical Musical Linguistic Spatial
Naturalistic Interpersonal Intrapersonal Kinesthetic (Physical)

27 Task Take the Multiple Intelligence test
Share top 2 intelligences with the class. How does understanding the fact that we all learn better in certain ways help us as students? Create a name tag and decorate with your 2 intelligences. This will be put on display in the classroom

28 Unit 2: Scripture Students will learn: 1. Scripture developed through divine inspiration, oral and written traditions in a variety of literary forms. 2. Scripture tells the ongoing relationship of God’s revelation to people. 3. Scripture stories are still relevant for us today as a guide to our daily living.

29 The Bible The word “Bible” comes from a Greek word meaning “books”
All the Biblical writings were inspired by God but written by everyday human beings The Bible can be seen as a handbook on how to live The Bible was written in different places and times over a period of about 1,000 years The Bible reveals God’s perfect love and life changing message for all people

30 The Bible compared to a Newspaper
The Bible is similar to the Newspapers of today Both the Bible and the Newspaper are divided into sections. Here are examples of some of these: Bible Newspaper -poetry -sports -history -world news -prophecy -comics -letters -editorial -mythology -life Each section is written by a different author Each section is written for a different purpose Each section is written for a different audience Each section is written at a different time and context

31 Newspaper Activity Read 2 newspaper articles from 2 different sections of a newspaper and complete the worksheet provided. Discussion: 1) Why is it important to read these articles in a different way? 2) How does this activity relate to the way in which we read the Bible?

32 Literary Forms in the Bible
Myth Narrative List Parable Law Gospel Sermon History Lyric Poetry Love Poetry Prayer Prophecy

33 Literary Forms in the Bible
Task: Read through the ‘Literary forms’ worksheet, brainstorm examples as a class and write them down on the sheet. Using the Bible, complete the ‘Literary forms in the Bible’ worksheet

34 The Bible Like a Newspaper, the Bible is also written in sections. The two major sections of the Bible are: The Hebrew Scriptures (or Old Testament) The Christian Scriptures (or New Testament) The Hebrew Scriptures The Hebrew Scriptures can be further divided into the following sections: Law History Poetry Major Prophets Minor Prophets Task: Complete the Old Testament Bookshelf worksheet by counting the amount of books in each section. Record your answers on the sheet.

35 Development of Scripture
Oral History – stories, songs, and recounting of events were passed on by word of mouth for many generations Written History – Over many years stories, recorded experiences, instructions, and guides were written at different times for different purposes Edited History – The most accurate and original accounts of events were collected and accepted as authentic. These first were written in Hebrew, then translated into Greek and then Latin. The New Testament was originally in Greek and the Old (Hebrew) Testament was in Hebrew.

36 Tips on Reading the Scriptures and Interpreting them
Look for repetition. Often repeated messages and themes are indicators that the author is trying to emphasize something of greater importance. Don’t take everything literally. However, there are many events and themes that need to be taken that way. Understand what the passage meant to the people of that time period first, then you can apply the message you learned to yourself. Be faith seeking and understanding in your attitude as a reader. Remember to try and leave your biases at the door when you read the Bible. Don’t let your biases block you from understanding the simple and prophetic message revealed in the Bibles pages.

37 Bible Interpretation Observation – What are the facts? What do the words mean? Who is speaking and to whom? Interpretation – What did the passage mean to the original audience? Evaluation – What does the passage mean to us today? Application – How should I apply what I learn from this passage to live a life that follows Jesus?

38 Contextual versus Literal Interpretation
Catholics are contextual readers of the Bible which means they examine the Bible looking at the historical cultural context of the period. On the other hand, literalists read the Bible as though it were a historical or scientific textbook. Copy out examples teacher gives from the board.

39 Contextual VS. Literal Interpretation
Read the following passages. Genesis 2: 21-23 Genesis 7:6 Leviticus 20:9-10 Deuteronomy 6:4-9 For each passage, create a t-chart (literalist on one side and contextualist on the other) and respond to these 2 questions: How would a literalist reader interpret this passage? How would a contextual reader interpret this passage?

40 Catholic Interpretation of the Bible
Most Protestant churches consider the Bible to be the only source of revelation. The Catholic Church teaches that God’s revelation in matters of faith and morals comes from three sources: 1. Holy Scripture 2. Apostolic Tradition 3. Magisterium – the Church’s teaching authority that consists of the Bishops (including the Pope). It is the official teaching authority of the Roman Catholic Church. Fundamentalism – literal interpretation of Scripture which does not take anything into account except the literal meaning of the words as they occur. This is not common practice for Catholic churches.

41 Types of Truth Religious – God tries to communicate with people through their lives. Moral – “Thou shalt not murder” Symbolic – “If your eye causes you to sin, pluck it out.” Proverbial – “The early bird catches the worm.” Historical – “Jesus lived his young life in Nazareth.” Scientific – The Earth goes around the Sun. Task: Complete the ‘Types of truth’ worksheet

42 Truths in Genesis As a class, read the first story of Creation (Gen. 1-2:4) and the second story of Creation (Gen. 2-4:25) Task: Complete the Genesis assignment worksheet. Creation story 1 questions T-chart comparision of creation stories 1 and 2 - This is due at the end of class. Thinking Mark out of 28.

43 Truths of Genesis Class Task: Brainstorm truths contained in the Creation story then copy out note. There is only one God God created everything God created everything good God created man and woman in God’s image God made humans the caretakers over the rest of the creation God gave humans free will God makes us co-creators God made the Sabbath day holy

44 Hebrew Scriptures The subject matter of the Hebrew Scriptures is 1800 years of Jewish history beginning with Abraham, the “Father of the Jewish People”, and ending with the defeat of Nicnor’s rebel army in 161 C.E. The Patriarchs (father figures) of the Hebrew Scriptures include: 1. Abraham who had the first covenant with God 2. Isaac who was the son of Abraham 3. Jacob who was the second son of Isaac and the father of the 12 tribes of Israel

45 Hebrew Scriptures Other important figures include:
1. Joseph who was able to interpret the Pharaoh of Egypt’s dreams and aided him in saving Egypt and Israel from a long and deadly drought 2. Moses who led the Hebrew people out of Egypt and to the promised land 3. David who defeated Goliath as a child and became the second King of Israel

46 Hebrew Scriptures Is revelation because the message comes from God the creator It describes God’s saving actions and interactions with human beings through the Jewish people It was written by inspired authors during the time before Jesus It is a record of the faith of the Jewish people Generally, the Hebrew Scriptures are divided into three major categories: 1. The Law – contains the first five books of the Bible. Also referred to as the Torah or the Pentateuch. 2. The Prophets – contains the works and actions of the prophets of Israel. 3. The Writings – contain the material of the Hebrew Scriptures that is not part of the Law or the Prophets.

47 Some Key Scripture Passages (OT)
Adam and Eve Noah and the Flood Abraham and Isaac Joseph and his brothers Moses and the burning bush Samson and Delilah David and Goliath Daniel and the lions

48 Old Testament Modernization Assignment
Students will be placed in groups of 4. They will pick their top 3 stories from the previous list and develop either a skit, puppet show or film. This performance will show a modern interpretation of the original story. Refer to the assignment and rubric for instructions.

49 The Ten Commandments Task: On a separate sheet of paper, divide your sheet into 4 equal sections. Copy out the questions the teacher provides and write down at least 5 answers per box. As a class, we will take up answers and discuss rules, authority figures and major influences. Class question: What does this exercise teach us?

50 Ten Commandments The Ten Commandments are a set of guidelines/laws, given to us by God, to live by and show that God is a just being and a legitimate authority – someone who has our best interest in mind and that of the common good. Just reading them through tells us this. There are other guidelines or rules that help develop our sense of virtue. Developing right attitudes helps inform our conscience. Our conscience (awareness of what is right or wrong in any given situation) needs good information based on wisdom and the right attitude to see it through. Having a healthy and informed conscience helps us see the goodness of God in life, both in ourselves and in others

51 Ten Commandments Task On a separate sheet of paper, answer the following questions: 1) Which commandment do you find the easiest to follow in your life right now? Why? 2) Which commandment do you find the most difficult to follow in your life right now? Why? 3) In your opinion, which commandment is the most important for society to follow? Explain your choice. We will discuss our answers in a circle.

52 New Testament Students will learn the following: Beatitudes
Jesus as Messiah to the whole world Jesus as God with us

53 New Testament Library Task: Fill out the New Testament bookshelf worksheet. Count the books in each section and write the answers on the sheet.

54 Christian Scriptures Is revelation because the source of the information is directly from writers who lived and experienced being with Jesus (God’s Son) or those who knew him It contains Jesus’ words and recorded actions It was a record of faith for early 1st Century Christians and beyond

55 Christian Scriptures Christian Scriptures are divided into four sections: 1. Gospels according to Matthew, Mark, Luke and John 2. Acts of the Apostles which describe early Christian life after Jesus’ death and resurrection 3. Epistles which are a series of letters 4. Revelations which is mainly prophetic while also being a letter of encouragement to the faithful

56 Christian Scriptures Christian Scriptures contain 27 books that we refer to as the canon, meaning “rules” These books and letters are considered authoritative teaching on the Christian faith and life

57 The Gospels The word “gospel” comes from the Greek word evangelion, meaning “good news” The first three Canonical Gospels – Matthew, Mark and Luke are so similar that they are called the Synoptic Gospels John is different in how it begins and in the way the stories are told (some stories are not included in the Synoptics due to the different audience John was addressing). Jesus is still seen as the Messiah of the Jewish people and the world. “Q” is material which represents a written collection of sayings from Jesus that were likely used to compose the Gospels “Q” is short for “Quelle” – a German word for source

58 Gospel according to Mark
Mark wrote the first Gospel shortly before 70 C.E. Written in Rome Gentile audience The shortest of the four Gospels

59 Gospel according to Matthew
Mostly based on the information in the Gospel of Mark Written for a Jewish Christians 70 C.E. Matthew used the “Q” source

60 Gospel according to Luke
Written between 70 – 90 C.E. Luke was a Syrian doctor from Antioch Luke depending on eyewitnesses and apostles for his information as he was not part of the first generation of Christians Used “Q” as a source

61 Gospel according to John
Quite different than the other three as it contains many details not found in the other Gospels Written around 90 C.E. Very symbolic and literary Someone edited the original between 90 C.E. and 100 C.E. Style and content lend us to believe it was written by an eyewitness that was very hurt by Christians being removed from the Jewish Synagogues in the later part of the 1st Century

62 Skinny Poem Group task Students will first complete an individual skinny poem based on 3 topics provided. Open mike sharing. Students will be assigned a group and passage from John’s gospel. Read the passage and compose a skinny poem based on passage. Write it out using construction paper and markers. Groups will then present their poem to the class Application mark /10

63 Gospel of John Task Students will be placed into groups of 3-4 and assigned a story from John’s gospel. Read the passage as s group and respond to the assigned questions. Write your responses neatly on the chart paper provided. Present to the class Communication mark /10

64 Newspaper articles Students will review the components of a newspaper article and review samples. This will help prepare them for their writing assignment.

65 Gospel of John Article Assignment
Using the knowledge gained from the previous activity, students are now required to create a newspaper article based on one of the passages from John’s gospel. See assignment instructions and rubric for more details.

66 Unit 4: Following Jesus Students will learn the following:
Self-esteem, Body Image and Emotions Virtue as a right or “best” attitude Specific concepts: Friendship, Love, Chastity, Forgiveness, Inclusiveness, Obedience Moral Decision Making (using good judgment)

67 ME, MY BODY, AND YOU In your notebook, write an individual response to these questions. What do you like about your body? What do you think others notice most about you? What does your body say to others about who you are? DISCUSS the photo on page 18 Is our image of ourselves always the image that others have of us? What might distort our physical image of ourselves? What helps us to see ourselves as we are and to appreciate our own bodies?

68 Physical Dimension Life and physical health are precious gifts entrusted to us by God. We must take reasonable care of them, taking into account the needs of others and the common good. Concern for the health of its citizens requires that society help in the attainment of living conditions that allow them to grow and reach maturity: food and clothing, housing, health care, basic education, employment, and social assistance.

69 Emotions I have experienced
Brainstorm a list of emotions and draw circle faces with the appropriate expressions. Are you sometimes surprised by how you feel? Explain. Is feeling bad always a bad thing? Is feeling good always a good thing? Explain. How do emotions affect the way you make decisions?

70 Emotions I have experienced
Which of the following statements do you agree with most strongly? Explain the reasons for your choice. It is better to control your own emotions rather than to be controlled by them. It is better to be controlled by your own emotions than to control them. It is better to allow emotions to enter into your decision making process than to exclude them.

71 Social Dimension Respect for the human person proceeds by way of respect for the principle that "everyone should look upon his neighbour (without any exception) as 'another self,' above all bearing in mind his life and the means necessary for living it with dignity." No legislation could by itself do away with the fears, prejudices, and attitudes of pride and selfishness which obstruct the establishment of truly fraternal societies. Such behaviour will cease only through the charity that finds in every man a "neighbour," a brother. (1931)

72 Called to Relationship
Identify as many factors as possible that contribute to a person’s self-esteem. Create a split-page organizer. On one side, identify the various kinds of relationships you are involved in. (e.g. parent, sibling, friend, etc.). On the other side, identify what actions help or hinder each relationship.

73 Called to Relationship
Identify in writing what factors make your relationship with God easy or difficult as compared to their relationship with other people in their life. Read pages 70 – 72 in the text and complete the reflection questions on page 72.

74 Personhood Self-esteem – To have self-esteem means to recognize your value as a person, to see your individual value and worth as a child of God.

75 Task Read and discuss the article “How can I improve my Self-Esteem?”
Read and discuss the article on “Body Image and Self-Esteem”

76 What blocks us from being as loving as we can be?
There are attitudes and actions that can be a road block to us living happy Spirit filled lives as Human Beings. We will cover the following factors that block the Spirit of the Beatitudes in our lives: Media Messages How you handle your emotions How you choose and develop friendships Your willingness to forgive and forget How you make decisions when tempted to do wrong or go against your moral convictions

77 Mainstream Media Culture
Believe image is body oriented (physical) Sex, Wealth and Violence are the primary characteristics that make you a free and powerful individual and happy as a person. “Cool” is important and therefore you must exclude others and draw attention to yourself by “fitting” in, not standing out as unique and different. Cool therefore is redefined every year or two through fads and styles – all send signals of power through sex, wealth and violence and thereby encourage discriminatory attitudes of who is ‘IN’ versus ‘OUT’

78 Inclusivity vs. Discrimination
Discrimination is a form of “pre-judging” other people. We make judgments for or against others that are based on ignorance, or lack of understanding. Forms of Discrimination: racism, sexism, ageism.

79 Inclusivity vs. Discrimination
Stages of Discrimination Joking Avoidance Discriminatory Action Violence Mass Violence with intent to exterminate

80 Task Have you ever had a situation where you felt you had to do something or act in a way that was not in keeping with your personality or who you are? What situations can you think of where you can be invited to be “not yourself?

81 What influences our relationships?
Personality – how we prefer to express ourselves and be ourselves in relation to others Communication (verbal and non-verbal) Conflict Resolution Experience Conscience – how informed is it prior to making a decision Our values How our family has raised us to think

82 Emotions In Christian writings, emotions are often called passions. They are gifts from God that help us to make connections between the life of the senses and the life of the mind. They encourage us to make good or bad choices depending on how we handle each situation and our general attitude towards life.

83 Basic Emotions Love – is a call to be one with God, the source of all love Anger and Fear – remind us that we don’t have the ability or the right to control everything. We must place our hope in God. Joy – is a call to stand in God’s presence. Sorrow – reminds us that only God can fill our emptiness; it is a call to seek comfort in God and others. Desire – reminds us that only God can satisfy our deepest longings.

84 Attitude When you develop good attitudes towards different situations so that you know how to handle things better – these can be called virtues. Virtues are the best attitudes to adopt in any given situation so that if you have the right attitude going into a situation then you are likely to make the right decision. Virtues are necessary when you are seeking to have good relationships with others. In this unit we will learn of a few different kinds of virtues.

85 Friendship We choose our friends – it’s a choice. How we choose them is the question. Things that help strengthen a friendship: - commonality - sharing - trustworthy with secrets - proximity (able to spend time together) - support

86 Friendship Things that can end a friendship - relocating
- broke a promise or secret - abuse your friend for money - outgrow your friend in maturity - over-dependent

87 Big Bang Theory clip Watch a clip from the show, Big Bang Theory, about friendship. Discussion Questions: What can we learn from the proposed equation on friendship? What are the flaws that exist in his argument? Is there a formula to having a successful friendship?

88 Love? Infatuation: Liking and pursuing a relationship with someone purely for their looks. Philia: A greek word meaning ‘friendship’ and implies a loyalty to someone you care for. Agape: A greek word meaning ‘sacrificial love for another’; it is a deep self-sacrificing love Eros: A greek word for romantic love. This does not have to be physical/sexual however is always passionate and implies an attraction in most uses of the word.

89 Infatuation List some of the ways you would know someone is infatuated with you as opposed to being in love with you. What ways can we ensure that our dating relationships are truly based in love? HINT: How are dating relationships like our regular friendships?

90 Chastity Read the handout on Chastity and how it relates to self-respect, self-control and true love.

91 Chastity Sexuality is a gift from God A foundation for real intimacy
Protection for the dignity of the human person A right attitude toward others

92 Moral Decision Making Dilemmas
“How far to go” on a date – Use your horoscope. Which article of clothing to buy – Depend on your friends’ judgment. Which school to go to – Flip a coin You love to be in love, and have two boyfriends/girlfriends. They find out about each other and you have to choose between them. You make your choice on the basis of a gut feeling. You have to attend an important family event. You would rather be with your friends at some other special event. You choose based on which will give you the most immediate satisfaction. You choose school courses based on which ones your friends are signing up for, rather than on truly what interests you and is best for the long-term.

93 Decision Making Model - Review handout on the DMM
- Analyze the scenario provided on the handout and apply the DMM format in your answer. Share with the class and discuss. See – Understand the problem/situation Judge – Make a decision that you feel is the best possible decision given the circumstances Act – Follow through with your decision Evaluate – Reflect on your decision and assess whether you made the best decision or not and learn something from the experience so you don’t repeat the same mistake

94 Unit 4: Thirteen Reasons Why by Jay Asher
We will be reading a novel as a class that deal with the following themes: Human dignity Suicide Friendship Decision-making Conscience Chastity Morals and values

95 Thirteen Reasons Why by Jay Asher
As we read the novel, we will pause to discuss and complete the following types of tasks: Developmental assets review Journals Letters to Hannah Advice for Hannah Once we are done reading the novel, we will complete a bingo choice board assignment.

96 Unit 5: Narnia and the New Testament
In this part of the unit students will learn: The Gospel Message Jesus’ life, death and resurrection as our hope in the world The meaning of the Kingdom of God as demonstrated through a life committed to the Beatitudes How to apply the Beatitudes in their own life and that of their friends and neighbours


98 The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe
C.S. Lewis writes us a story that takes into a new way of understanding the Gospel Message found in the New Testament The Wardrobe becomes a “gateway” into a new world…but one that is very much the same as our own

99 The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe
Like our world, the world of Narnia is in turmoil: - always winter, never summer (including no Christmas) - ruled by an evil Witch that turns you to stone if you do not obey her (no justice) - trees, creatures and some animals are on her side, but not all of them - the king of Narnia is Aslan, the Great Lion who is prophesized to come back with the help of 4 humans to save Narnia

100 The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe
Narnia, like our world during World War II, is heading toward an inevitable war. Lewis is trying to show how God is still present, even in the darkest hours of human history. It is through Jesus and his teaching that the world can be freed of evil and grow in peace but only through the courageous efforts of each individual to do good. God can also help show us the way to personal healing and growth. Let’s take a look at Peter, Susan, Edmund and Lucy to see how this is true.

101 Peter the Magnificent Peter is in charge of the well-being of his siblings once they are moved to Scotland for their own protection. Peter struggles with his own leadership qualities…he is not confident in himself at first Peter tends to be bossy and uncertain – which is particularly bothersome to Edmund Peter needs to learn about leadership and understand that one must lead with love first

102 Peter the Magnificent Peter enters into battle to protect both his family and the kingdom of Narnia. He is outnumbered, intimidated and scared but all of Narnia is behind him. Witnessing Aslan offer his life for Edmund and all of Narnia inspires Peter. It is also the faith of those around him that inspire him with the courage to stand up to the White Witch and, like Aslan, risk his life for a greater good. Peter is renamed the “Magnificent” in respect to the change that occurs in his heart – he has found himself and discovered his ability to lead with his heart for this is the greatest kind of leader.

103 Susan the Gentle Susan is the oldest daughter – second oldest in the family Susan needs life to be under control – logic is the way you establish control Susan always feels the way she does things is the right way – this annoys others in her family Susan needs to allow others to take their own sense of responsibility and to trust them. Control can be shared and brought about through gentleness and humility versus fear and anger

104 Susan the Gentle By witnessing Aslan’s willingness to forgive Edmund and show him mercy and grace, Susan realizes that not everything has to be dealt with in an authoritarian way. There is great power in mercy – often times by showing grace one can cause greater positive change in others. Susan truly learns the power of grace and mercy and so is renamed Susan the Gentle.

105 Edmund the Just Edmund is the one hurt the most from the separation of his family during the war Edmund, however, does not process his feelings…he bottles it all up Edmund feels that he was entitled to something different and is angry that nobody can change his circumstances for him Upon meeting the Witch, Edmund sees someone who can take him away from his pain and give him exactly what he wants immediately (just like the pop culture of consumption today)

106 Edmund the Just Once free, Edmund meets with Aslan. Aslan speaks with Edmund. We never know what they speak of, but it is believed that Aslan validated Edmunds pain and gave him forgiveness (grace). This was more powerful than punishing him. Once Edmund experienced forgiveness, he begins to want to live his life for a reason – with purpose to do good to others. This is the power of love to change people. Edmund risks his life for his brother and Narnia – he truly understands the virtue of valuing others over himself.

107 Edmund the Just The Witch is lying to him for she is being selfish herself and only wants her will to be satisfied Edmund starts to become like the Witch and would have if she had not turned on him – selfish and corrupt While in prison, Edmund realizes what his choices have afforded him and he starts to desire to be free, and with his freedom, help others become free. He starts to see how our lives are all interconnected. He sees how quickly evil desires can destroy what is most valuable to us in life.

108 Lucy the Valiant Lucy is the youngest in the family
Like all children, she does not have a problem believing in the “impossible” – in other worlds and different possibilities No surprise, Lucy is therefore the first to see the world of Narnia through the Wardrobe. Still, at first she is not sure if the snow that falls is actually snow. She believes quickly though and allows herself to be overwhelmed with joy and wonder.

109 Lucy the Valiant Lucy’s first friend is Mr. Tumnus. He has plans to kidnap her because the Witch has ordered him to do so. Her innocence and kindness overwhelms Tumnus and he decides to free her and do the right thing. Lucy’s attempt to tell her family about what she has seen is met with doubt and mocking from all of her siblings, especially Edmund. Lucy is the example of how child-like faith can wear away so much in older children and adults that we lose our ability to believe and have faith in anything beyond our senses.

110 Lucy the Valiant The professor (an adult) restores faith in Lucy by showing how it is possible to use logic to believe in her story. Lewis is showing how faith is logical and that it is perhaps the children that we should listen to the most. Lucy is the constant source of faith in the story – her faith fuels her enthusiasm and good will to help others.

111 Lucy the Valiant Lucy is Valiant in that she does not compromise her faith at any moment. She knows what she has seen and is determined not to let it go. She inspires others to be braver in their faith and allow it to become part of who they are. Lucy is the point we all need to return to, the inner child that frees us up to believe again. She is renamed Lucy the Valiant for her bravery in holding true to her faith. It is her faith that inspires others to believe and experience how they can participate in the life of God. Lucy most closely resembles a true disciple of Jesus Christ from the very beginning of the story. The others follow her by the end and are disciples themselves.

112 The God in the Wardrobe The Gospel Message is about returning to God. It is about a return to the heart of faith – the truth about who we are as human beings and about how we can serve others with love and compassion as Jesus did. The message in Narnia is another way to understand the Gospel Message. The story centers on the powerful message and presence of Christ as the source of life itself – the source of healing for our wounds and of empowering our spirits to do impossible things in the name of love and justice

113 Beatitudes and Narnia The following are the Beatitudes that best fit the main characters in Narnia: Lucy – Blessed are the pure in heart Peter – Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness Susan – Blessed are the meek Edmund – Blessed are the merciful

114 Beatitudes The word Beatitude comes from the Latin word, beatitudo meaning happiness/blessing In the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus describes the qualities of the citizens of the Kingdom of Heaven Each of the blessed individuals indicated in the Beatitudes are not considered blessed according to worldly standards, but with a heavenly perspective, they truly are blessed

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