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Armenian Proverbs & The Biblical Scripture. Contents Introduction: Proverbs and Other Paremia Christian and Not Christian Types of Parallels 7 types of.

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Presentation on theme: "Armenian Proverbs & The Biblical Scripture. Contents Introduction: Proverbs and Other Paremia Christian and Not Christian Types of Parallels 7 types of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Armenian Proverbs & The Biblical Scripture

2 Contents Introduction: Proverbs and Other Paremia Christian and Not Christian Types of Parallels 7 types of Parallels Integrity of Proverbs and Tapestry of Parallels Conclusions The People and the Bible Statistics Trends of Differences Origins Appendix

3 Proverbs Christian Proverbs Proverbs are pithy folk sayings of common use with a special recommendation or conclusion. A stitch in time saves nine. Time is money. The apple doesn’t fall far from its tree. Give him an inch, he’ll ask for a mile. A picture is worth a 1000 words.

4 Matti Kuusi about Christian Proverbs The Sermon on the Mount and the old folk proverbs move on completely different levels, and the directions they give often collide abruptly. The ethic of the Old Testament, the commandments and prohibitions of the tablets of Moses are far closer to the spirit of the ancient folk. Matti Kuusi, Christian and no-Christian. In Mind and Form in Folklore. Selected Articles, Studia Fennica Folkloristica. Helsinki

5 Parallel Classes MeaningForm 1. Complete Equivalents: CE 2. Meaning Equivalents: ME 3. Form Equivalents: FE 4. Lexical Matches: LM5. Opposite Mentality: OM 7. Ideological Adages: IA (Free & Nested) 6. Thematic Adages: TA

6 Proximity Biblical Text & Complete Equivalents Meaning & Form Equivalency Lexical Matches & Opposite Mentality Thematic & Ideological Adages

7 1. Complete Equivalents—CE A complete match in form and meaning between BT & AP Gal 6:7 You reap whatever you sow. ÆÝã áñ ó³Ý»ë, ³ÛÝ ÏÁ ÑÝÓ»ë: Whatever you sow, you reap. Mt 7:7 [Ask and it will be given to you; seek and you will find;] knock and the door will be opened to you. ØÇÝã»õ ¹áõéÁ ãóϻë, µ³ó ³ÝáÕ ãÇ ÁÉÝÇ: Unless you knock at the door, no one will open it.

8 1. Complete Equivalents Diachronically Ex 21:24, Deut 19:21, Lev 24:20 Eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, fracture for fracture. ²ÏÝ Áݹ ³Ï³Ý »õ ³ï³ÙÝ Áݹ ³ï³Ù³Ý£ Eye for eye and tooth for tooth.

9 1. CE by Translation Sources Job 6:27 Ye dig a pit for your friend. KJV àõñÇßÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ ÷áë ÷áñáÕÁ ÇÝùÁ Ù¿çÁ ÏþÇÛݳÛ: Who digs a pit for another, will fall into it. You would even cast lots over the fatherless, and bargain over your friend. RSV

10 2. Equivalency in Meaning: ME almost same ideas and wording with small differences Eccl 7:4-5 It is better to hear the rebuke of the wise than to hear the song of the fools. ȳõ ¿ ÇÙ³ëïáõÝÇ Ñ»ï ù³ñ ù³ß»ë, ù³Ý ³ÝË»ÉùÇ Ñ»ï ÷ɳõ áõï»ë: ȳõ ¿ ÇÙ³ëïáõÝÇ Ñ»ï ù³ñ ù³ß»ë, ù³Ý ³ÝË»ÉùÇ Ñ»ï ÷ɳõ áõï»ë: It is better to carry stones with wise than to eat pilaf with fools. Mt 5:37 Let what you say be simply `Yes' or `No'; anything more than this comes from evil. ²ëïáÓ ûËÝ»É ¿ ¦Ñ³-ݦ, ûËÝ»É ³ ¦ã¿- ݦ, ³ÝÇÍ»É ³ ¦Ñ³-Ý áõ ã¿-ݦ: The Lord blessed the ‘yes’, and blessed the ‘no’, but cursed the ‘yes and no’. IA: ´³ÉùÇ-Ý ó³Ý»É »Ý, ãÇ µáõëÝ¿: The ‘perhaps’ was sown but it didn’t sprout.

11 2. More ME almost same ideas and wording with insignificant differences Eccl 11:12 [Of making many books there is no end; and] much study is a weariness of flesh. ¶ÇïáõÝ ·ÇïݳÛ, ù³Ýó Ù³½ ÏÁ µ³ñÏݳÛ, ³Ý·¿ï É¿ ãѳëÏݳÛ, ù³Ýó ·»ñ³Ý ÏÁ ѳëïݳÛ: The guru who knows, thins down like a hair and the dumb doesn’t understand, so he rounds up like a log. Pr 17:10 A reproof enters more into a wise man than an hundred stripes into a fool. ¶ÇïáõÝÇÝ Ù¿Ï, ³Ý·¿ïÇݪ ѳ½³ñ: Once to the wise, a thousand times, to the fool.

12 3. Equivalency in Form: FE Same images and expressions, quite different conclusions Mt 6:3-4 [But when you give alms, do not let your] left hand know what your right hand is doing [so that your alms may be done in secret; and your Father who sees in secret will reward you]. Ø¿Ï Ó»éùÁ ã¾ ·Çï»ñ ÿ ÙÇõëÁ ÇÝã ÏþÁÝ¿: One hand doesn’t know what the other does. ÎÝÏ³Û ÙÁ Ù¿Ï Ó»éùÁ åÇïÇ ãÇÙ³Ý³Û ÙÇõë Ó»éùÝ ÇÝã ÏþÁÝ¿: A woman’s hand shouldn’t know what the other hand does. Isa 49:15 Can a woman forget her nursing child or show no compassion for the child of her womb? Even these may forget, yet I will not forget you. Ø»ñÁ Ù³ÝáõÏÝ áõñ³ó³õ: The mother denied the child.

13 4. Lexical Matches: LM Biblical images or formulae condensed into an idiom or word in Armenian Mt 5:44 Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you. ¸áõßÙ³ÝÇë ã»Ù ϳٻݳۣ May it not happen even to my enemy. ¸áõßÙ³Ýǹ (ÃáÕ) ÉÇÝÇ May it happen to your enemy. Bottomless pit ²Ýï³Ï Ñáñ Honey and milk ÆõÕ áõ Ù»Õñ

14 5. Thematic Adages: TA Biblical themes compressed into a proverb Gen 3:3 but God said, `You shall not eat of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, neither shall you touch it, lest you die.‘ ²ñ·»Éáõ³Í åïáõÕÁ ù³ñóñ ¿: Forbidden fruit is sweet. Job 22:29 When men are cast down, then shalt say, There is lifting up; and he shall save the humble person. KJV λ³ÝùÁ ë³Ý¹áõÕ ÙÁÝ ¿, ÏþÇçÝ»ë ³É, Ïþ»ÉÉ»ë ³É: Life is a staircase; it will go both up and down.

15 5. TA on Word Pr 25:15 [With patience a ruler may be persuaded, and] a soft tongue will break a bone. ²Ýáõß (ù³Õóñ) É»½áõÝ (ËûëùÁ) ûÓÁ µÝ¿Ý ÏÁ ѳݿ: A sweet tongue (sweet words) draws a snake out of its den. È»½áõǹ ï³ÏÁ áëÏáñ ãϳÛ: Isn’t there a bone under your tongue? Heb 4:12 Indeed, the word of God is living and active, sharper than any two-edged sword. John 1.14 And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, full of grace and truth. ÂñÇ Ïïñ³ÍÁ ÏÁ ɳõݳÛ, É»½áõÇ Ïïñ³ÍÁ ãÇ É³õݳñ: The sword cut heals, the tongue cut doesn’t. г·áõëïáí ÏþÁݹáõÝ»Ý, É»½íáí ׳Ù÷áõ ÏÁ ¹Ý»Ý: Shown in by clothes, shown out by the speeches.

16 6. Opposite Mentality: OM: Formal match & ideological conflict Ps 126:5 May those who sow in tears reap with shouts of joy. ¸³éÁ ¹³ï»ó, ¹³ï³ñÏ Ýëï³õ: He worked hard, remained empty (with nothing). Pr 22:9 He that has a bountiful eye shall be blessed; for he gives of his bread to the poor. Ê»Õ×ÇÝ Ñ³ó ïáõáÕ ãÇ ¿ÕÝÇ, ÑÁÙÁ Ëñ³ï ïáõáÕÁ ß³ï Ïþ»ÕÝÇ: No one gives bread to poor but many give advice.

17 Contradictions around giving. OM continued Mt 5:40-41 and if any one would sue you and take your coat, let him have your cloak as well. ºñ»ë ïáõÇñ, ³ëï³é Ïþáõ½¿: You gave [him] the facing, he’s asking for the lining. Mt 5:42 Give to him who begs from you, and do not refuse him who would borrow from you. ÀÝÏ»ñáç¹ å³ñïù ïáõÇñ, ѳ٠÷áÕ¹ ÏáñóñÇñ, ѳ٠ÁÝÏ»ñ¹: You loaned to your friend, you lost both your money and your friend.

18 7. Ideological Adages: Free IA No direct parallels as synonyms Ephes 4:26-27 Be angry but do not sin; do not let the sun go down on your anger, and give no opportunity to the devil. Pr 25:28 He whose spirit is without restraint is like a city that is broken down and without walls. ¾É³õ ëÇñï, Ïïñ»ó ·ÉáõË, Çç³õ ëÇñï, ã·ï³õ ·ÉáõË: Upset was the heart, and cut off the head, calmed down the heart, could not find the head.

19 More Free IA Eccl 3:1 To everything there is a season, and a time to every purpose under the heaven.‘ ì³ËïÁª í³ËïÇÝ, ³ñÅ³Ý ÏþÁÉÝ»ë ÷³÷áõÏ µ³ËïÇÝ: ì³ËïÁª í³ËïÇÝ, ³ñÅ³Ý ÏþÁÉÝ»ë ÷³÷áõÏ µ³ËïÇÝ: If you keep] time to time, you’ll deserve a smooth fate. ijٳݳÏÁ áñ ·³Û, ù³ñ¿ ï³ÝÓÁ ÏÁ ѳëáõÝݳۣ ijٳݳÏÁ áñ ·³Û, ù³ñ¿ ï³ÝÓÁ ÏÁ ѳëáõÝݳۣ If the time comes, the stone pear will ripen.

20 7. Ideological Adages: More Free IA Ideological match & formal discrepancy Mt 6:30-31, 34 But if God so clothes the grass of the field, which today is alive and tomorrow is thrown into the oven, will he not much more clothe you, O men of little faith? Therefore do not be anxious, saying, `What shall we eat?' or `What shall we drink?' or `What shall we wear?' "Therefore do not be anxious about tomorrow, for tomorrow will be anxious for itself. Let the day's own trouble be sufficient for the day. úñÁ Ïáõ·³Û, µ³ñÇÝ Ñ»ïÁ£ úñÁ Ïáõ·³Û, µ³ñÇÝ Ñ»ïÁ£ The day will come, and the goodness with it. ²ëë³Ý¿ ³é³ç ãÁÝÏÝÇÝù£ ²ëë³Ý¿ ³é³ç ãÁÝÏÝÇÝù£ Let us not precede (forerun) God. ²ëïáÍ Ù³ï³ÕÁ ï»ëÝÇ, ÷»ïÁ ÏÁ ѳëóÝÇ: ²ëïáÍ Ù³ï³ÕÁ ï»ëÝÇ, ÷»ïÁ ÏÁ ѳëóÝÇ: God sees the sacrifice, he provides with the logs. ²Ù»Ý ³õáõñ ²ëïáõ³Í ³Õù³ïÁ ÏÁ Ïßï³óÝ¿: ²Ù»Ý ³õáõñ ²ëïáõ³Í ³Õù³ïÁ ÏÁ Ïßï³óÝ¿: God feeds the poor every hour.

21 7. Ideological Adages: IA Nested Ideological match & formal discrepancy Nested IA have synonyms to direct parallels Mt 7:3 Why do you see the speck in your neighbor’s eye but do not notice the log in your own eye? ¸³õ¿Ý Çñ»Ý Ïáõ½Á ãÇ ï»ëÝ»ñ, áõñÇßÇÝ ¹áõ½Á ÏÁ ï»ëÝ¿: The camel does not see its crooked hump but sees to other’s uprightness. Tapestry with ME (meaning equivalent) — Æñ³ ³ãùÇ ·»ñ³ÝÁ ÃáÕ³Í, áõñÇßÇ ³ãùÇ ãá÷Á Ù³Ý Ïáõ·³Û: Having left aside the log in his eye, he’s looking for a twig (toothpick) in another’s eye.

22 Integrity of Proverbs and Parallel Tapestries Proverbs are integral units of lexicon. As such, they have synonyms, antonyms, and even homonyms. His bark is worse then his bite. гã³Ý ßáõÝÁ Ë³Í³Ý ãþÁÉɳñ£ A barking dog is not a biting dog. ÂñÇ Ïïñ³ÍÁ ÏÁ ɳõݳÛ, É»½áõÇ Ïïñ³ÍÁ ãÇ É³õݳñ: The sword cut heals, the tongue cut doesn’t. Sticks and stones will back break my bones, but words can never harm me. Cf. Pr 25:15 A soft tongue will break a bone. Synonyms and antonyms appear among other paremiological units, e.g., idioms, adages, maxims, etc.

23 Tapestry with CE and Synonyms (NIA, TA) Gal 6:7 You reap what you saw. Pr 1:31: therefore they shall eat the fruit of their way and be sated with their own devices. NIA  öã³Í¹ ·¹³É¹ åÇïÇ ·³Û: What you blew will come to into your spoon.  ÆÝã áñ µñ¹»ë ³Ù³Ý¹, ¿Ý ¿É Ïáõ·³Û µ»ñ³Ý¹: What you crumble onto your plate will go into your mouth.  ÆÝã ‘ûñ µñ¹»ë, ¿Ý ¿É ÏÁ Ëñûë: What you crumple, that you gobble.  ¸¿ »÷³Í¹ ³åáõñÁ ·¹É¹¿: Then spoon the soup you made. TA  ÆÝã ϳÙÇë ÇÝÓ, ³ëïáõ³Í ϳÙÇ ù»½: Whatever you wish me, may God wish you.  ÆÝã ï³ë Ñá·áõ¹, ¿Ý Ïþ»ñÃ³Û ³ñ¨áõ¹: What you give for your soul, goes to your sun (adds up to your life).

24 Tapestry of Interweaving Parallels Eccl 8:15 And I commend enjoyment, for man has no good thing under the sun but to eat and drink, and enjoy himself (KJV—to be merry), for this will go with him in his toil through the days of life which God gives him under the sun. TA: ø¿ý ¿ÝáÕÇÝ ù¿ý ãÇ å³ÏëÇ (ëáõ· ¿ÝáÕÇÝ ¿Éª ëáõ·:) He who parties, will have no lack of parties (he who mourns, will always mourn). CE: àõï»É ËÙ»ÉÁ ÏÁ Ùݳۣ Eating and drinking will last.

25 Tapestry of Interwoven Parallels Luke 4:23 Physician heal thyself.  CE: ¸»Õ áõÝÇë, ùá ·ÉËÇÝ ³ñ³: If you have medicine, use it for your head.  TA: ø³ã³ÉÁ ׳ñ áõÝ»Ý³Û Çñ»Ý ·ÉËáõÝ ÏþÁÝ¿ (ϳ٪ Çñ ·ÉËáõÝ ×³ñÁ ÏÁ ï»ëÝ¿): If the bald have a remedy, he will take care of his head.  TA: ø»½Ç ѳٳñ ÏÁ ùÝÇë, áõñÇßÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ ¿ñ³½ ÏÁ ï»ëÝÇë: You sleep for yourself, but dream for others.

26 Tapestry Diachronically Deut 19:21 Eye for eye CE (Old Armenian) ²ÏÝ Áݹ ³Ï³Ý ME (New Armenian) ²ãù¹ ѳÝáÕÇ Ñá·ÇÝ Ñ³Ý¿: Who pokes out your eye, poke out his soul.

27 A Tapestry of Stones and Rocks Job 6:12 Is my strength the strength of stones, or is my flesh bronze? LM: ø³ñ¿ ç³±Ý »Ù£ Is my flesh of stone? Mt 24:2 There shall not be left here one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down. (also in Kings 9:7, Jer 26:18, Micah 3:12, Luke 19:44) LM: ø³ñÁ ù³ñÇÝ ãÙݳó (ãÃáÕÇÝ)£ No stone was left upon stone. John 8:7 [And as they continued to ask him, he stood up and said to them, "Let him who is without sin among you be the first] to throw a stone at her." TA: (²ñÇ Ïþ»ÕÝÇ ¿¹) ö»ßǹ ù³ñÁ ó÷¿: (Would you please) Drop down those rocks from your hem.

28 Tapestry of Stone Continued Mt 4:6 "If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down; for it is written, `He will give his angels charge of you,' and `On their hands they will bear you up,] lest you strike your foot against a stone.'" LM: àï¹ ù³ñÇ ã·³Û: May your feet not strike against a stone. àïùÁ ù³ñÇ »Ï³õ: his feet stumbled, he tripped against a stone’, i.e., encountered an unexpected (or well-deserved) obstacle. IA: Ø»ÍÇÝ ÉëáÕÇ áïÁ ù³ñÇ ãÇ ·³Û: If one listens an elder, his/her foot won’t strike rocks. cf. 1 Peter 5:1-3 1 So I exhort the elders among you, as a fellow elder and a witness of the sufferings of Christ as well as a partaker in the glory that is to be revealed. Tend the flock of God that is your charge, not by constraint but willingly, not for shameful gain but eagerly not as domineering over those in your charge but being examples to the flock. cf. 1 Peter 5:1-3 1 So I exhort the elders among you, as a fellow elder and a witness of the sufferings of Christ as well as a partaker in the glory that is to be revealed. Tend the flock of God that is your charge, not by constraint but willingly, not for shameful gain but eagerly not as domineering over those in your charge but being examples to the flock.

29 TA & LM Tapestry—Biblical themes, images, formulae compressed into a proverb or idiom Mt 5:29-30 If your right eye causes you to sin, pluck it out and throw it away; it is better that you lose one of your members than that your whole body be thrown into hell. And if your right hand causes you to sin, cut it off and throw it away; it is better that you lose one of your members than that your whole body go into hell. CM: ȳõ ¿ Ù³ñ¹áõ ³ãùÁ ¹áõñë ·³Û, ù³Ý ÿ ³ÝáõÝÁ: Better to have one’s eye pop out than one’s name. TA: Pr 22:1 A good name is to be chosen rather than great riches. TA: ²ñ»É »ë ³ç Ó»éùáí¹, É³ó ¿¹ ã³ñ ³ãù»ñáí¹: You’ve done it with your right hand, cry with those mean eyes of yours. LM idioms ³ãùÁ Ñ³Ý»É severely punish, Ó»éùÁ (ë/¹) ãáñݳñ May the (my/your) hand dry out. a blessing Ó»éù»ñ¹ ¹³É³ñ may your hands flourish/stay young

30 Conclusions Statistics IA—Ideological Adages IA—Ideological Adages ME—Meaning Equivalency ME—Meaning Equivalency LM—Lexical Matches (esp. Old Testament) LM—Lexical Matches (esp. Old Testament) TA—Thematic Adages TA—Thematic Adages CE—Complete Equivalency CE—Complete Equivalency FE—Formal Equivalency FE—Formal Equivalency OM—Opposite Mentality (esp. New Testament) OM—Opposite Mentality (esp. New Testament)

31 Historical Circumstances Bible familiarity levels for common folks, creators and users of proverbs, sayings, and other paremia. Low levels of literacy until the 20th c. Low levels of literacy until the 20th c. Christianity as state religion early on in 301 AD. Christianity as state religion early on in 301 AD. The creation of the Armenian alphabet circa 405 AD The creation of the Armenian alphabet circa 405 AD Bible translation: a comparative and team work Bible translation: a comparative and team work Generations of church goers used the Biblical word as remembered. Generations of church goers used the Biblical word as remembered cc the Old Armenian becomes practically incompressible cc the Old Armenian becomes practically incompressible. First translation into vernacular late 19th c. First translation into vernacular late 19th c In the Soviet era free and obligatory common literacy but religion banned and the church and clergy persecuted. Faith without religion until independence in In the Soviet era free and obligatory common literacy but religion banned and the church and clergy persecuted. Faith without religion until independence in Diaspora: scattered and concerned with preservation. Church services in Old Armenian (except Protestant denominations). Diaspora: scattered and concerned with preservation. Church services in Old Armenian (except Protestant denominations).

32 Difference Trends Worldly Meaning Worldly Meaning God is removed God is removed Familiar cultural phenomena appear Familiar cultural phenomena appear Reward and final justice in this life Reward and final justice in this life Insignificant differences due to linguistic divergence of compared languages (grammar & lexicon). Insignificant differences due to linguistic divergence of compared languages (grammar & lexicon).

33 Difference Trends: Worldly Meaning, God Removed, Redemption in This Life Gal 6:7 [Do not be deceived; God is not mocked, for] Whatever a man sows, that he will also reap. ÆÝã áñ ó³Ý»ë, ³ÛÝ ÏÁ ÑÝÓ»ë: You scratch my back, and I’ll scratch yours. ȳõ Áë»Ýù, ɳõ Éë»Ýù£ If we say good things, we’ll hear good things in return.

34 Difference Trends 1. Worldly Meaning 1. Religious meaning of the BT is substituted with a worldly, common-sensical meaning of folk wisdom. Mt 6:3-4 But when you give alms, do not let your left hand know what your right hand is doing so that your alms may be done in secret; and your Father who sees in secret will reward you. Ø¿Ï Ó»éùÁ ãÇ ·Çï»ñ ÿ ÙÇõëÝ ÇÝã ÏþÁÝ¿: Ø¿Ï Ó»éùÁ ãÇ ·Çï»ñ ÿ ÙÇõëÝ ÇÝã ÏþÁÝ¿: One hand doesn’t know what the other does. I.e.Confused ÎÝÏ³Û Ù¿Ï Ó»éùÁ åÇïÇ ãÇÙ³Ý³Û ÙÇõë Ó»éùÝ ÇÝã ÏþÁÝ¿: ÎÝÏ³Û Ù¿Ï Ó»éùÁ åÇïÇ ãÇÙ³Ý³Û ÙÇõë Ó»éùÝ ÇÝã ÏþÁÝ¿: A woman’s hand shouldn’t know what the other hand does. I.e.Thrifty

35 Difference Trends 2. Concept of God Removed BT dialogues between God & mortals are modified to fit a common dialogue between equals as human. Mt 5:14-15 You are the light of the world. A city set on a hill cannot be hid. Nor do men light a lamp and put it under a bushel, but on a stand, and it gives light to all in the house. Öñ³·Á (ȳÙåÁ) Çñ ï³ÏÁ ÉáÛë ãÇ ï³ñ: A lamp lights up underneath itself. A lamp lights up underneath itself. Öñ³·Á Ù¿Ý³Ï Çñ³ ï³ÏÁ ÉáÛë Ïáõ ï³Û: A lamp illuminates just under itself. A lamp illuminates just under itself.

36 Reference to the Authority of God Mt 5:37 Let what you say be simply `Yes' or `No'; anything more than this comes from evil. ²ëïáÓ ûËÝ»É ¿ ¦Ñ³-ݦ, ûËÝ»É ³ ¦ã¿-ݦ, ³ÝÇÍ»É ³ ¦Ñ³-Ý áõ ã¿-ݦ: The Lord blessed the ‘yes’, and the ‘no’, but cursed the ‘yes and no’.

37 Difference Trends 3. Reward and final justice in this life opposite to the Biblical heaven (or hell). ÆÝã ï³ë Ñá·áõ¹, ¿Ý Ïþ»ñÃ³Û ³ñ»õáõ¹: What you give for your soul, goes to your sun. Spirituality benefits this life. What you give for your soul, goes to your sun. Spirituality benefits this life. Cf. proverbs about casting the bread onto the water:

38 Difference Trends 3 Final Justice Now and Here (Cont.) Eccl 11:1 Cast your bread upon waters. ȳõáõÃÇõÝ Áñ¿, çáõñÁ Ó·¿, (¹¿Ù¹ Ïáõ ·³Û): ȳõáõÃÇõÝ Áñ¿, çáõñÁ Ó·¿, (¹¿Ù¹ Ïáõ ·³Û): CM: Do goodness and throw it into the water (it will appear in front of you). ȳõáõÃÇõÝ ³ñ³, çáõñÁ ·óÇ, ÓáõÏÁ ãÇٳݳÛ, ²ëïáõ³Í ÏþÇٳݳÛ: ȳõáõÃÇõÝ ³ñ³, çáõñÁ ·óÇ, ÓáõÏÁ ãÇٳݳÛ, ²ëïáõ³Í ÏþÇٳݳÛ: CE: Do goodness and cast onto the waters; if fish don’t know God will. ȳõáõÃÇõÝ ³ñ³, çáõñÁ ·óÇ, ²ëïáõ³Í ãÇٳݳÛ, ÓáõÏÁ ÏþÇٳݳÛ: ȳõáõÃÇõÝ ³ñ³, çáõñÁ ·óÇ, ²ëïáõ³Í ãÇٳݳÛ, ÓáõÏÁ ÏþÇٳݳÛ: FE: Do goodness and cast onto the waters; if God don’t know, the fish will. ȳõáõÃÇõÝ ¿ÝáÕÇ Ã³÷¿Ý Í³Ï ¿: ȳõáõÃÇõÝ ¿ÝáÕÇ Ã³÷¿Ý Í³Ï ¿: OM: Who does goodness, has a hole in his head. Cf. English : No good deed will go unpunished. ÜëïÇÙ ·áϹ, ÷Çï»Ù ÙÇñáõù¹: ÜëïÇÙ ·áϹ, ÷Çï»Ù ÙÇñáõù¹: I sit in you lap, I pluck your beard.

39 Difference Trends 4. Culturally familiar items & phenomena. Eccl 7:4-5 It is better to hear the rebuke of the wise than to hear the song of the fools. ȳõ ¿ ÇÙ³ëïáõÝÇ Ñ»ï ù³ñ ù³ß»ë, ù³Ý ³ÝË»ÉùÇ Ñ»ï ÷ɳõ áõï»ë: ȳõ ¿ ÇÙ³ëïáõÝÇ Ñ»ï ù³ñ ù³ß»ë, ù³Ý ³ÝË»ÉùÇ Ñ»ï ÷ɳõ áõï»ë: Better is to carry stones with wise than to eat pilaf with fools. Jer 13:23 Can Ethiopians change their skin or leopards their spots? Then also you can do good who are accustomed to do evil. ME: ê»õÇÝ ë³åûÝÝÝ ÇÝã û·áõï (ÏþÁÝ¿), Ë»õÇݪ Ëñ³ïÁ: What good is soap to the black and advice to insane? What good is soap to the black and advice to insane? γñÙÇñ ÏáíÁ ϳßÇÝ ãÇ ÷áË¿: The red cow doesn’t change its skin. The red cow doesn’t change its skin. ²ÝÓñ»õÝ ÇÝã ¿Ý¿ ù³ñÇÝ, Ëñ³ïÝ ÇÝã ¿Ý¿ ã³ñÇÝ: What can the rain do to the rock, and the advice to the mean? What can the rain do to the rock, and the advice to the mean?

40 Origins Bible—direct source for AP (CE) Bible—direct source for AP (CE) Bible—major source of influence Bible—major source of influence Older than the Bible? Older than the Bible? International proverbs International proverbs Human universals: basic needs and common experiences Human universals: basic needs and common experiences

41 Origins 1 Bible as the Direct Source Some parallels seem to unequivocally point at the Bible as the source for the paralleling AP: Job 6:27 Ye dig a pit for your friend. Job 6:27 Ye dig a pit for your friend. àõñÇßÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ ÷áë ÷áñáÕÁ ÇÝùÁ Ù¿çÁ ÏþÇÛݳÛ: Who digs a pit for another, will fall into it.

42 Origins 2 Bible as a major source of influence LM idioms ¸áõßÙ³ÝÇë ã»Ù ϳٻݳۣ May it not happen even to my enemy; ¸áõßÙ³Ýǹ (ÃáÕ) ÉÇÝÇ ¸áõßÙ³Ýǹ (ÃáÕ) ÉÇÝÇ May it happen to your enemy. Mt 7:6 Do not give what is holy to dogs. Mt 7:6 Do not give what is holy to dogs. ÞÝ»ñáó »Õ³õ£ Became a belonging of dogs. I.E., goodness wasted. Became a belonging of dogs. I.E., goodness wasted. Þ³Ý áõ ·ÇÉáõ µ³ÅÇÝ »Õ³õ£ Their lot befell to dogs and wolves. Their lot befell to dogs and wolves. TA on—GOD, DEVIL, HEAVEN AND HELL

43 Origins 3 Older then the Bible? Ex 21:24 Eye for eye From the Code of Hammurabi. Luke 4:23 Physician heal thyself. ø³ã³ÉÁ ׳ñ áõÝ»Ý³Û Çñ»Ý ·ÉËáõÝ ÏþÁÝ¿ (ϳ٪ Çñ ·ÉËáõÝ ×³ñÁ ÏÁ ï»ëÝ¿): If the bald have a remedy, he will take care of his head. If the bald have a remedy, he will take care of his head. ¸»Õ áõÝÇë, ùá ·ÉËÇÝ ³ñ³: If you have medicine, use it for your head. If you have medicine, use it for your head. TA: ø»½Ç ѳٳñ ÏÁ ùÝÇë, áõñÇßÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ ¿ñ³½ ÏÁ ï»ëÝÇë: You sleep for yourself, but dream for others. You sleep for yourself, but dream for others.

44 Origins 4 International Proverbs Pr 25:15 [With patience a ruler may be persuaded, and] a soft tongue will break a bone. ²Ýáõß (ù³Õóñ) É»½áõÝ (ËûëùÁ) ûÓÁ µÝ¿Ý ÏÁ ѳݿ: A sweet tongue (words) draws a snake out of its den. A pleasant voice brings a snake out of a hole. Persian Ps 119:96 There is no limit to perfection. ²é³Ýó ÷ßÇ í³ñ¹ ãϳÛ: There is no rose without thorns. There is no honey without a sting, nor rose without a thorn. Persian

45 Origins 4 International Proverbs Ps 2:1-4 TA, IA ÞáõÝÁ ѳã³Û, ù³ÙÇÝ ÷ã¿£ The dog barks and the wind blows. If the dog barks at the moon, will the moon be affected by it? Tamil If the dog barks at the moon, will the moon be affected by it? Tamil If a jackal howls, will my old buffalo die? Badaga If a jackal howls, will my old buffalo die? Badaga ²ëïáõ³Í áñ Õ³éÕéÇ µ»ñÝÇÝ ³ß¿, ì³ñ¹»õáñÇÝ ÓáõÝ ÏÁ ¹Ý¿: If God considers what a crow says, it will snow on Vartevor. If God considers what a crow says, it will snow on Vartevor. If you stare at the sun, it will hurt your eyes and not the sun. (re: God) Persian If you stare at the sun, it will hurt your eyes and not the sun. (re: God) Persian ²ñ»·³ÏÇÝ Ñ¿ïù ¿ Ñ»éáõÇó ݳۻÉ, Ïþ³ÛñÇ »Ã¿ ß³ï Ùûï»Ý³ë£

46 Origins 4 International Proverbs Pr 25:28 IA ¾É³õ ëÇñï, Ïïñ»ó ·ÉáõË, Çç³õ ëÇñï, ã·ï³õ ·ÉáõË: Upset was the heart, and cut off the head; calmed down the heart, couldn’t find the head. Anger has no eyes. Malayalam Mt 10:42 42: IA ÆÝã ï³ë Ñá·áõ¹, ¿Ý Ï’»ñÃ³Û ³ñ»õáõ¹£ What you give for you soul, will go to your life (longevity). Ten in this world, one hundred in the next. Persian i.e. whatever is given in alms in this world is repaid tenfold in the next.

47 Origins 5. Human Universals ²ãùÇ áõß Thorn of eye ²ãùÇ áõß Thorn of eye ¹áß³ÏÇ áõßÁ mattress thorn—peace of conscience ¹áß³ÏÇ áõßÁ mattress thorn—peace of conscience سïÇó áõß Ñ³ÝáÕ åïáõÕ ã¿: سïÇó áõß Ñ³ÝáÕ åïáõÕ ã¿: He isn’t a fruit who would pull out a thorn from one’s finger. سïÇó áõß Ñ³ÝáÕ’Ù ãáõÝÇ: سïÇó áõß Ñ³ÝáÕ’Ù ãáõÝÇ: Has no one to pull out a thorn from his finger. Salt as universal seasoning. Use of rocks in the ‘life is a road’ metaphor, thorn in flesh, speck in the eye, etc.

48 Origins 5. Human Universals Mt 7:16 You shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes of thorns or figs of thistles? ÞÝ¿Ý ßáõÝ (áõ Ï¿ë) Ï’¿ÕÝÇ£ From a dog another dog and a half will be. ÞÝ¿Ý ßáõÝ (áõ Ï¿ë) Ï’¿ÕÝÇ£ From a dog another dog and a half will be. ¶³½þÙ ã»ÕÝÇ, Ù³½þÙ Ïþ»ÕÝÇ: If there isn’t a gaz, there will be a hair. ¶³½þÙ ã»ÕÝÇ, Ù³½þÙ Ïþ»ÕÝÇ: If there isn’t a gaz, there will be a hair. Will an elephant bring forth a frog or a pig a mouse? Malayalam Will an elephant bring forth a frog or a pig a mouse? Malayalam

49 The Bible & Armenian Proverbs Interpretation of the Interpretation Little World The power of the Word taught from the pulpit has been absorbed and acculturated in Armenian proverbs to fit the common sense of everyday existence.

50 IA Tapestry Ezek 18:2`The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children's teeth are set on edge'. Jn 10:18: A sound tree cannot bear evil fruit, nor can a bad tree bear good fruit. ̳éÇ ¹³éÝáõÃÇõÝÇó åïáõÕÝ ¿É ãÇ áõïáõÇ: Because of the bitterness of the tree, its fruit isn’t edible either.

51 Tapestry of rocks Lam 3:53 They flung me alive into the pit and cast stones on me. LM: ø³ñ ¹Ý»É íñ³Ý, ͳÍϳ¹Ùµáó To put a stone on, i.e. end in conspiracy LM: ¶áñÍÇÝ ù³ñ ·ó»É To throw a stone onto the matter, i.e.: destroy dishonestly


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