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The (1867) 2 nd Reform Act. ‘A Leap in the Dark’ Factors promoting reform revival  Extra / parliamentary radicals demand Reform Union & Reform League.

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Presentation on theme: "The (1867) 2 nd Reform Act. ‘A Leap in the Dark’ Factors promoting reform revival  Extra / parliamentary radicals demand Reform Union & Reform League."— Presentation transcript:

1 The (1867) 2 nd Reform Act

2 ‘A Leap in the Dark’ Factors promoting reform revival  Extra / parliamentary radicals demand Reform Union & Reform League  Middle and working class dissatisfaction with 1832  Population growth (1831 = 24m > 1861 = 29m)  Industrial, urban expansion  Respectable, deserving working class - US civil war  Death of Palmerston – Shift in Liberal Party Doctrine The Second Reform Act (1867)

3 Reform Union Established by John Bright (MP) Birmingham Middle class movement Sought W/C allies against landed Aims for household franchise Redistribution to urban seats Reform League Established 1865 Working Class Movement Supported by NMU’s Seeks universal male suffrage but registered/residential Keep out unskilled – Residuum  League and Union cooperate for limited reform  Pressure brought on government Extra Parliamentary Pressure

4  1850’s - Liberal Party dominance under Palmerston Reform Bills all rejected  By 1864 Gladstone was converted to reform  1865, Palmerston’s death – arch anti reformer  Replaced by Lord John Russell The Liberal Party Whigs Peelites Radicals Liberals Represented the majority of the country’s views

5 Gladstone authored the 1866 Reform Bill Franchise extended to; Catered to creating Whig support & limiting rural W/C Voters No. of Male voters increased from 1:5 to 1:4 Defeated by the Adullamites in league with DisraeliAdullamites Russell resigns The Queen invites Lord Derby to form a government Disraeli becomes HoC Leader & Chancellor of the Exchequer 1866 Reform Bill HouseholderLodger County£14 per year£10 per year Borough£7 per yearX Created 400,000 new voters

6 Lord Derby and Disraeli in Commons form minority Tories out of power since 1846 – Desperate for a win Introduce reform bill (March 1867) 45 Borough seats redistributed Disraeli enlisted the support of pro-reform Liberals There was growing discontent that needed addressing Reform League (Hyde Park Riots) 1867 Reform Act HouseholderLodger Borough1 year residence £10 per year County£12 per year£5 per year Created 1.2M new voters

7 The ‘Leap in the Dark’

8  Rejection of Gladstone / Russell Bill (June 1866) July: Demonstrations, riots Hyde Park and Trafalgar Square X3 nights Only League able to restore order Tense situation compounded by: Sheffield outrages (1866) Loss of union fund protection Cholera epidemic Expensive breadDownturn in trade Social Unrest

9  2 nd Reform Act introduced: February 1867  May: Reform League rally, Hyde Park  Government ban on rally. 100,000 strong rally proceeds  Government’s fear: return to Chartist mass platform Pass bill to calm situation Enfranchise respectable working class Repeat of 1832: take away top layer ‘The Hyde Park Railway to Reform’ Social Unrest

10 Tories in minority since 1846  Reform inevitable and accepted  Pass reform;  Amendments rejected: Votes for women Election expenses from rates: Shows fear of new (Labour) party development Gain popularityControl reform Control seat redistribution Secure the County vote Party struggle

11 Disraeli’s shrewd political footwork. ‘Dishing the Whigs’ Gains Tory advantage, Quells agitation and riots  Wider effects of 1867: Age of mass politics: growth of party organisation 1 in 3: England, Scotland and Wales 1 in 6 in Ireland Mass electorate: difficult to bribe, intimidate Prompts further parliamentary reform; 1872 Ballot Act & 1883 Corrupt Practices Act (Gladstone) Verdict on 1867


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