How did machinery revolutionize American Culture? Job Aspects Focus on Machines? How did the U.S. fare in comparison to the other industrial powers of Europe? Did the government support Industrialization? New Idea: Interchangeable parts How important were Railroads? Steamships? Communications? Difference from European railroads? Did the government sponsor railroads?
Cornelius Vanderbilt J.P. Morgan Andrew Carnegie John Rockefeller George Eastman Thomas Edison
Women and Children in the workplace Horrid conditions and long hours Labor Unions Unrest and strikes Court Cases Haymarket Riot Homestead strike Pullman Strike
Cities became the symbol of New America Glass and Steel frames allowed the construction of Skyscrapers. Electric elevators were first used in 1871. Immigrants crowded into the cities, but were forced to live in the older sections. Nativist thoughts re-emerge. Ellis Island – major immigration station Rigorous testing of immigrants – most feared was the eye exam for trachoma Island of Hope, Island of Tears “Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to be free.”
Where did the new immigrants come from? What was domestic life like for them? What were important institutions for the new immigrant families?
Political Machines helped the explosive growth of cities. Corruption grew as did political confusion over local government responsibility. Political machines traded services for votes. Leaders of political machines were called “Bosses” Tammany Hall Democratic Political Machine in New York Famous leader – William “Boss” Tweed and the Tweed Ring Plundered New York for tens of millions of dollars New York City County Courthouse Designed for $250,000 Costs ran higher – $5.5 million for furniture, carpet, and shades $180,000 for 40 chairs and 3 tables $1.5 million for plumbing fixtures $500,000 for plaster work $1 million to repair the plaster work Total Bill - $2,870,464.06 – the six cents went to charity Actual cost – over 13 million dollars Political machines did help the city – population doubled every decade and the machines helped to create infrastructure and provide for the burgeoning population. George Washington Plunkitt – another leader of Tammany hall coined the phrase “honest graft.”
What was the changing role for women? What did people do for entertainment? How did higher education shape the United States? What is Social Darwinism? What are Settlement Houses and what did they do? What is a famous example?
1880 -1900 – 150 new colleges opened Morrill Land Grant – large grants to states to establish colleges The act fostered 69 land grant institutions – including the state universities of Wisconsin, California, Illinois, and Minnesota Curriculum changed – more practical Women still fought for educational opportunities – formed study clubs Study clubs read Virgil, Chaucer, history, architecture, and discussed women’s rights Gave rise to women in colleges after the Civil War Exception: Dr. Edward Clarke (Harvard) argued learning made women sterile 1900 – 40% of college students were women 4 out of 5 colleges admitted women
Most did not accept minorities W.E.B. Dubois – African American sociologist and Civil Rights leader – attended Harvard, but not fully accepted by institutions within the college Booker T. Washington – Tuskegee Institute (Alabama) 1900 – a model agricultural and industrial school He called for slow progress through self improvement. Blacks should acquire property, and show their worth. He believed in black equality. Dubois proposed a more aggressive approach He examined crime and wrote a book, “The Philadelphia Negro” Crime for blacks stemmed from the slum environment Change the environment and people will change, education is the key to equality! Encouraged blacks to: seek professions, seek civil rights, seek college education. Called for integrated schools and to educate the “Talented Tenth”
High infant mortality rate, decreased fertility marked the time period. Depression and Labor Unrest Henry George – “Progress and Poverty” – theory: land formed the basis of wealth, and few could become wealthy because the price of land rose. Poverty was evidence of sin, poor had themselves to blame and God made the great to be great – common mindset Many challenge this and establish missions in the slums Settlement Houses created. Hull house (Jane Adams) taught: education, Shakespeare, English, art, sewing, life skills Robert Woods, Lillian Wald, Florence Kelly, Harriet Vittum Other crisis centers included: Churches, Charity Organizations, and Community Chests “Melting Pot Theory” emerges America as a house of “have” and “want” becomes a common metaphor
Read Plessy vs. Ferguson pg. 567 Read Hardship and Heartache pg. 573
Politics were a major source of entertainment in this time period – more people than ever could read, and more could vote. Discrimination was prevalent – literacy tests, Jim Crow South. Party loyalties remained strong even after the Civil War. Democrats regain footing and hold the House for many years. Republicans sought civil rights and federal authority. Democrats sought state’s rights and limited government North and South voted along party lines
Interstate Commerce Commission Bland Allison Silver Purchase Act Pendleton Act Sherman Anti-Trust Act Sherman Silver Purchase Act National Farmers’ Alliance and Industrial Union Ocala Demands
Populist Party – reform party Mary E. Lease “raise less corn and more hell. If one man has not enough to eat three times a day and another man has $25 million, that last man has something that belongs to the first.” Populists worked to unite many people and change the policy of the Democratic Party. Have a presidential nominee, but do not win the presidency. However, they have other politicians that get elected. Very powerful protest and reform movements throughout history. Lost support and was broken during party realignment.
Economy expanded to drastically. Companies grew beyond their market, Railroads overbuilt, businesses had borrowed beyond capacity. Panic of 1893 – New York Stock Market – investors dumped 1 million shares of the Philadelphia and the Reading Railroad. Leads to the worst economic downturn experienced so far. People hurry to sell stocks and buy gold – depletes the U.S. Treasury – this slumps to, and past the $100 million gold mark in the treasury. People gather and the market plummets – “Industrial Black Friday” The entire country suffers – banks revoke loans, crops wither, prices fall. People grow angry at the government.
“Battle of the Standards” – new voting patterns emerged – decisive and “exciting” politics Free silver coinage was growing popular – offered a quick solution to the economic problems Independent coinage – the U.S. would mint silver regardless of all other nations. Belief: more money in the economy = more economic activity. Silver also was tied to a patriotic sense that if the U.S. adopted silver it would be independent of the world. The Republicans advocated the Gold Standard Bryan (Democrat) vs. McKinley (Republican) Different Campaign Approaches McKinley triumphs Economy grows – new techniques for mining gold and new gold discoveries in Alaska and Australia Modern Presidency – new relations with Press, traveling across country New Republican pledge – promote economic growth Gold Standard Act 1900