3-Greek meaning Paleos“old” Lithos-Stone Outstanding Feature-Development of the human species Homeo Sapiens1.People were generally nomadic; Hunters and gatherers who sheltered in caves & huts, used fire and fashioned stone tools.2. By the upper Paleolithic there is evidence of communal hunting, constructing of shelters, and belief systems centering on magic & supernatural3.Cave iconography is limited to 3 basic themes:a. Animalsb. Human representationsc. Signs or Symbols
5Discovered in 1994-The scenes portrayed from 35,000 years ago 1.Earliest known cave art2. Scientists at first believed the more primitive the picture the older it was; Chauvet had very developed drawings so therefore they thought it was more recent3. At first it was thought that it was more recent of the cave art as in comparison to Altimira or Lescaux caves. Carbon Dating dated it as oldest of the 3 caves.Different animals depicted are rhinoceroses, lions, and bears. Most of the animals depicted were the animals hunted
6The dominant animals throughout the cave are lions, mammoths, and rhinoceroses. From the archaeological record, it is clear that these animals were rarely hunted; the images are thus not simple depictions of daily life at the time they were made.Along with cave bears (which were larger than grizzly bears), the lions, mammoths, and rhinos account for 63 percent of the identified animals, a huge percentage compared to later periods of cave art. Horses, bison, ibex (goat), reindeer, red deer, aurochs(oxen), musk-oxen, panther, and owl are also represented.
7Lions Hunting Bison- Main Panel at the end of the chamber Lions Hunting Bison- Main Panel at the end of the chamber. Note Panel is scraped repeatedly, artist making his own white canvas. Makes the lions muzzle stand out moreLions and Bison
8Injured Bison– Red ochre and black carbon-Naturalistic shape Wounded Bison Altamira
9Geometric ShapesMysterious Geometric shapes on rock hanging from the ceiling; could be interpreted as birds or butterflies
10Panel of Panther and Hyena w/dots Chauvet Cave Cheetah and HyenaPanel of Panther and Hyena w/dots
11Owl Looking Over His Shoulders Owl drawn with finger-Head is turned 180 degrees-Body shown from the back allows it to be identified as a Long-Eared Owl. The drawing was made on a thin film of clay
12Big horn rhino- Drawn with carbon, note exaggerated horn
13Bear in red ochre-Note shading on the muzzle and head of the bear Chauvet BearBear in red ochre-Note shading on the muzzle and head of the bear
18Wounded man and Bison-Perhaps the most perplexing painting in all the Paleolithic caves shows a man, a rhinoceros, and a wounded bison. Researchers can be sure of nothing, but if the figures were placed beside each other to tell a story, then this is evidence for the creation of complex narrative compositions involving humans and animals at a much earlier date than previously imagined.Wounded man and Bison-Perhaps the most perplexing painting in all the Paleolithic caves shows a man, a rhinoceros, and a wounded Bison. Researchers can be sure of nothing, but if the figures were place besides each other to tell a story, there is evidence for the creation of complex narrative compositions involving humans and animals at a much earlier date than previously imagined.
20Hall of Bulls 15,000-13,000 BCELargest Bull is approx. 11’ 6” long Hall of the Bulls (left wall), Lascaux, Dordogne, France, ca. 15,000–13,000 BCE. Largest bull approx. 11’ 6” long.Hall of Bulls 15,000-13,000 BCELargest Bull is approx. 11’ 6” long
33Neolithic or New Stone Age- dating from 8000 BCE in the Near East and about 5,000 BCE in Europe 1.Neolithic People started to settle down in permanent villages and began cultivation of regular food sources and the maintenance of herds of domesticated animals.2. Pottery, weaving, spinning as well as architecture of stone, mud bricks, and timber, contributed to a new mode of life.
34Neolithic plastered skull of Jericho- 7,000 BCE Life-size The inhabitants of Jericho buried their dead beneath the floors of their homes with the skulls reconstructed with tinted plaster, displayed above the ground. This practice suggests a respect for the dead and possible ancestor worshipNeolithic plastered skull of Jericho-7,000 BCE Lifesize
35Jericho was heavily fortified with walls 5 feet thick and over 13 feet high, and surrounded by a wide ditch. Several towers were constructed in the wall, measuring 28 feet tall and 33 feet in diameter at the base with a staircase to the summit of the towerEarly Neolithic Wall and Tower Jericho
36Human figures Ain Ghazal Jordan 6750 BCE-6250BCE Height of larger figure 33” 1st known large-scale sculptures Plaster around tightly tied reeds. Probably added wigs and clothing later…thought they might represent ancestorsHuman Figures Ain Ghazal Jordan 6750BCE-6250BCE Height of larger figure 33 inches
37Female Ceramic figure Cernavoda Romania 3500BCE Very linear form , found in a tomb may represent the man or woman or perhaps they were gifts that had a separate purpose before burialFemale Ceramic Figure- Cernavoda, Romania 3500BCE
38Male figure, Cernavoda, Romania “The Thinker” ArtistAuguste RodinYear1902Male Figure Cernavoda, Romania
39Menhirs, dolmens, and cromlechs appear in the Neolithic period Menhirs, dolmens, and cromlechs appear in the Neolithic period. While Menhirs and dolmens were used to mark burial sites, cromlechs often suggested a ritual function. The most famous cromlech in Britain is Stonehenge1.
40Menhir alignments at Menec, Carnac, France BCE Menhir from Breton words meaning “long stone” Menhirs are always placed in horizontal alignments; There are 2,935 menhirsMenhir alignments at Menec, Carnac, France BCE
41DolmensDolmens is a type of single chamber, megalithic tomb, usually consisting of 3 or more upright stones, supporting a large flat horizontal flat stone. Dolmens were usually covered w/ earth or smaller stones to form a barrow though in many cases they have weathered away.
43First the Henge was dug- Construction of the Henge In its day, the construction of Stonehenge was an impressive engineering feat, requiring commitment, time and vast amounts of manual labor. In its first phase, Stonehenge was a large earthwork; a bank and ditch arrangement called a henge, constructed approximately 5,000 years ago. It is believed that the ditch was dug with tools made from the antlers of red deer and, possibly, wood. The underlying chalk was loosened with picks and shoveled with the shoulder blades of cattle. It was then loaded into baskets and carried away.The Bluestones- About 2,000 BC, the first stone circle (which is now the inner circle), comprised of small bluestones, was set up, but abandoned before completion. The stones used in that first circle are believed to be from the Prescelly Mountains, located roughly 240 miles away, at the southwestern tip of Wales. The bluestones weigh up to 4 tons each and about 80 stones were used, in all. Given the distance they had to travel, this presented quite a transportation problem.Sarsen Circle: 30 stones (made of Sarsen sandstone), 13 feet high, 26 tons each. Circle = 97.5 feet in diameter..Within the Sarsen Circle are 15 large stones in five groups called Trilithons, arranged in a horseshoe shape that opens toward the Heel Stone. Each Trilithon is composed of three 50-ton stones about feet high; two positioned vertically, with the other lying horizontally across the top. Many have fallen, and several other sets of small stones (not shown) were added later.
44Cromlech- 4 phases of construction -Stonehenge 2100BCE Wiltshire, England Stonehenge-Wiltshire, England
49Catal Hayuk-Turkey Turkish for “fork” Mound Discovered in 1958 Entire settlement is composed of domestic buildings. Buildings were crammed together; no footpaths or streets. Most houses accessed by holes in the ceiling which were accessed by ladders or stairs. Roofs were “streets” No walls for protection needed since the houses were so close together