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Chapter 1 Key Terms/Places/ Names  Paleolithic ochre  Altamira Pigment  Lascaux Dolmen  Chauvet Cromlech  Modeling Menhir  Naturalism  Neolithic.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Key Terms/Places/ Names  Paleolithic ochre  Altamira Pigment  Lascaux Dolmen  Chauvet Cromlech  Modeling Menhir  Naturalism  Neolithic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1 Key Terms/Places/ Names  Paleolithic ochre  Altamira Pigment  Lascaux Dolmen  Chauvet Cromlech  Modeling Menhir  Naturalism  Neolithic  Megaliths

2 Paleolithic Art

3 -Greek meaning Paleos“old” Lithos-Stone  Outstanding Feature-Development of the human species Homeo Sapiens  1.People were generally nomadic; Hunters and gatherers who sheltered in caves & huts, used fire and fashioned stone tools.  2. By the upper Paleolithic there is evidence of communal hunting, constructing of shelters, and belief systems centering on magic & supernatural  3.Cave iconography is limited to 3 basic themes:  a. Animals  b. Human representations  c. Signs or Symbols

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5 Discovered in 1994-The scenes portrayed from 35,000 years ago  1.Earliest known cave art  2. Scientists at first believed the more primitive the picture the older it was; Chauvet had very developed drawings so therefore they thought it was more recent  3. At first it was thought that it was more recent of the cave art as in comparison to Altimira or Lescaux caves. Carbon Dating dated it as oldest of the 3 caves.  Different animals depicted are rhinoceroses, lions, and bears. Most of the animals depicted were the animals hunted

6 The dominant animals throughout the cave are lions, mammoths, and rhinoceroses. From the archaeological record, it is clear that these animals were rarely hunted; the images are thus not simple depictions of daily life at the time they were made. Along with cave bears (which were larger than grizzly bears), the lions, mammoths, and rhinos account for 63 percent of the identified animals, a huge percentage compared to later periods of cave art. Horses, bison, ibex (goat), reindeer, red deer, aurochs(oxen), musk-oxen, panther, and owl are also represented.

7 Lions Hunting Bison- Main Panel at the end of the chamber. Note Panel is scraped repeatedly, artist making his own white canvas. Makes the lions muzzle stand out more

8 Injured Bison– Red ochre and black carbon-Naturalistic shape

9 Mysterious Geometric shapes on rock hanging from the ceiling; could be interpreted as birds or butterflies

10 Panel of Panther and Hyena w/dots

11 Owl drawn with finger-Head is turned 180 degrees-Body shown from the back allows it to be identified as a Long-Eared Owl. The drawing was made on a thin film of clay

12 Big horn rhino- Drawn with carbon, note exaggerated horn

13 Bear in red ochre-Note shading on the muzzle and head of the bear

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15 Lescaux Cave discovered in 1940 Images are 20,000 years old  Painted Galleries-figures cover the entire upper reaches of the walls & surface of the vault

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18 Wounded man and Bison-Perhaps the most perplexing painting in all the Paleolithic caves shows a man, a rhinoceros, and a wounded Bison. Researchers can be sure of nothing, but if the figures were place besides each other to tell a story, there is evidence for the creation of complex narrative compositions involving humans and animals at a much earlier date than previously imagined.

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20 Hall of Bulls 15,000-13,000 BCELargest Bull is approx. 11’ 6” long

21 Altamira Cave Spain

22 Altamira Cave located in Spain was discovered in ,000 yrs old

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26 Paleolithic Carvings

27 Statuette carved from mammoth ivory of a human with a feline head

28 Vogelherd Cave- dates back 30,000-36,000 yrs ago Carved from mammoth ivory Height 2” small hole located in the front legs suggest it might have been worn as a pendant

29 Spearthrower with Interlocking Ibexes- Medium is reindeer antler

30 Dame a la Capuche (Woman from Brassempouv) Medium Ivory 1 ½” 22,000 BCE

31 Woman of Willendorf (Venus of Willendorf) 28,ooo-25,000 BCE Limestone Height 4 1/8”

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33 Neolithic or New Stone Age- dating from 8000 BCE in the Near East and about 5,000 BCE in Europe  1.Neolithic People started to settle down in permanent villages and began cultivation of regular food sources and the maintenance of herds of domesticated animals.  2. Pottery, weaving, spinning as well as architecture of stone, mud bricks, and timber, contributed to a new mode of life.

34 Neolithic plastered skull of Jericho- 7,000 BCE Life-size The inhabitants of Jericho buried their dead beneath the floors of their homes with the skulls reconstructed with tinted plaster, displayed above the ground. This practice suggests a respect for the dead and possible ancestor worship

35 Jericho was heavily fortified with walls 5 feet thick and over 13 feet high, and surrounded by a wide ditch. Several towers were constructed in the wall, measuring 28 feet tall and 33 feet in diameter at the base with a staircase to the summit of the tower

36 Human figures Ain Ghazal Jordan 6750 BCE-6250BCE Height of larger figure 33” 1 st known large-scale sculptures Plaster around tightly tied reeds. Probably added wigs and clothing later…thought they might represent ancestors

37 Female Ceramic figure Cernavoda Romania 3500BCE Very linear form, found in a tomb may represent the man or woman or perhaps they were gifts that had a separate purpose before burial

38 Male figure, Cernavoda, Romania “The Thinker” Artist Auguste Rodin Year1902

39 Menhirs, dolmens, and cromlechs appear in the Neolithic period. While Menhirs and dolmens were used to mark burial sites, cromlechs often suggested a ritual function. The most famous cromlech in Britain is Stonehenge  1.

40 Menhir alignments at Menec, Carnac, France BCE Menhir from Breton words meaning “long stone” Menhirs are always placed in horizontal alignments; There are 2,935 menhirs

41 Dolmens Dolmens is a type of single chamber, megalithic tomb, usually consisting of 3 or more upright stones, supporting a large flat horizontal flat stone. Dolmens were usually covered w/ earth or smaller stones to form a barrow though in many cases they have weathered away.

42 Timeline Stonehenge

43 The Bluestones- About 2,000 BC, the first stone circle (which is now the inner circle), comprised of small bluestones, was set up, but abandoned before completion. The stones used in that first circle are believed to be from the Prescelly Mountains, located roughly 240 miles away, at the southwestern tip of Wales. The bluestones weigh up to 4 tons each and about 80 stones were used, in all. Given the distance they had to travel, this presented quite a transportation problem. First the Henge was dug- Construction of the Henge In its day, the construction of Stonehenge was an impressive engineering feat, requiring commitment, time and vast amounts of manual labor. In its first phase, Stonehenge was a large earthwork; a bank and ditch arrangement called a henge, constructed approximately 5,000 years ago. It is believed that the ditch was dug with tools made from the antlers of red deer and, possibly, wood. The underlying chalk was loosened with picks and shoveled with the shoulder blades of cattle. It was then loaded into baskets and carried away. Sarsen Circle: 30 stones (made of Sarsen sandstone), 13 feet high, 26 tons each. Circle = 97.5 feet in diameter.. Within the Sarsen Circle are 15 large stones in five groups called Trilithons, arranged in a horseshoe shape that opens toward the Heel Stone. Each Trilithon is composed of three 50-ton stones about feet high; two positioned vertically, with the other lying horizontally across the top. Many have fallen, and several other sets of small stones (not shown) were added later.

44 Cromlech- 4 phases of construction -Stonehenge 2100BCE Wiltshire, England

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46 Diagram of original arrangements of stones at Stonehenge

47 Moving the stones

48 Catal Huyuk

49 Catal Hayuk-Turkey Turkish for “fork” Mound  Discovered in 1958 Entire settlement is composed of domestic buildings. Buildings were crammed together; no footpaths or streets. Most houses accessed by holes in the ceiling which were accessed by ladders or stairs. Roofs were “streets” No walls for protection needed since the houses were so close together

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55 Ancient Near Eastern Art Chapter 2 Terms Mesopotamia Ground line Cuneiform Stele Ziggurat Registers Orthostats Rhyton Hieratic scale Cylinder seals Frontality Buttresses Lamassu


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