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Course Outline The following topics will be covered:

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2 Course Outline The following topics will be covered:
Types & properties of asbestos Uses of asbestos Health effects of asbestos General asbestos rule requirements

3 What is Asbestos? Serpentine Rock (Chrysotile) - California State Rock

4 Close-up of Asbestos Fibers

5 Common Types of Asbestos
Chrysotile – most common “White Asbestos” Amosite “Brown Asbestos” Crocidolite – least used “Blue Asbestos” Chrysotile asbestos mine in Canada

6 Other types of asbestos -
Tremolite (Libby vermiculite mine-actually winchite-richterite) Actinolite Anthophyllite

7 Vermiculite insulation in attics
“Popped” Vermiculite Vermiculite ore Vermiculite insulation in attics

8 Libby Vermiculite Mine
Photo of operating Libby mine Zonolite insulation Libby Mine site today

9 Asbestos = “inextinguishable”
Uses of Asbestos Asbestos = “inextinguishable” Egyptians; Greeks & Romans Middle Ages Industrial Revolution Twentieth century – *World War II + next 30 years

10 Properties of Asbestos
Naturally occurring fibrous minerals Asbestos ore Good tensile strength Flexibility Heat resistance Electrical resistance Good insulation Chemical resistance

11 Some Asbestos-Containing Materials*
(This list does not include every product/material that may contain asbestos. It is intended as a general guide to show which types of materials may contain asbestos.) Spray-Applied Insulation Blown-in Insulation Fireproofing Materials Taping Compounds (thermal) Packing Materials (for wall/floor penetrations) High Temperature Gaskets Laboratory Hoods/Table Tops Laboratory Gloves Fire Blankets Fire Curtains Cement Pipes Cement Wallboard Cement Siding Asphalt Floor Tile Vinyl Floor Tile Vinyl Sheet Flooring Flooring Backing Construction Mastics (floor tile, carpet, ceiling tile, etc.) Acoustical Plaster Decorative Plaster Textured Paints/Coatings Ceiling Tiles and Lay-in Panels * Source: EPA

12 Some Asbestos-Containing Materials
(Continued) Elevator Equipment Panels Elevator Brake Shoes HVAC Duct Insulation Boiler Insulation Breaching Insulation Ductwork Flexible Fabric Connections Cooling Towers Pipe Insulation (corrugated air-cell, block, etc.) Heating and Electrical Ducts Electrical Panel Partitions Electrical Cloth Electric Wiring Insulation Chalkboards Roofing Shingles Roofing Felt Base Flashing Thermal Paper Products Fire Doors Caulking/Putties Adhesives Wallboard Joint Compounds Vinyl Wall Coverings Spackling Compounds

13 Asbestos is an Inhalation Hazard
Airborne asbestos fibers inhaled deep into the lung can cause damage. Respirable fibers are inhaled and deposited in the lungs Body’s defense mechanisms cannot break down the fibers Fibers cause damage to respiratory system Damage occurs in the alveoli

14 Asbestos-related diseases
Asbestos can cause disabling respiratory disease and various types of cancers if the fibers are inhaled. - Asbestosis - Lung Cancer - Mesothelioma - Other cancers

15 Smoking and Asbestos Lung Cancer Risks
70 per 100,000 lung cancer deaths in general population Lung Cancer Risks 5x higher risk than general population 10x higher risk 50x to 90x higher risk

16 Asbestosis Example Joe Darabant, 1949. Joe, 1989.
Photos Joe Darabant, 1949. Covered with chrysotile asbestos fibers. Worked for 30+ years at the Johns-Manville Plant in New Jersey, cutting asbestos shingles and making asbestos block and pipe-covering materials. Joe, 1989. Forced to retire in 1974 at age 50 from poor health; he died from asbestosis in 1990 at age 66.

17 Current worker exposure to asbestos
An estimated 1.3 million workers are exposed in U.S. today. In the construction industry, removal renovation and demolition have heaviest exposures. In general industry, exposure can occur in: manufacture of asbestos products automotive brake and clutch repair housekeeping and custodial work

18 Some Washington State Statistics
3716 L & I asbestosis claims filed in the last 20 years (1988 – 2007) 558 deaths in Washington from mesothelioma in (CDC data) Mesothelioma deaths – DOSH Citations in 362 inspections resulting in 935 violations 73% of these violations were cited serious - $780,350 in penalties assessed.

19 Where could you be exposed to asbestos?
Asbestos had a variety of uses in building construction completed before You could be exposed to asbestos during inspection of the following activities in these older buildings: Asbestos removal projects Building insulation maintenance or repair Heating and air conditioning maintenance and repair Insulated piping maintenance repair Floor tile or flooring replacement or repair Roofing or siding replacement or repair Non-metal piping replacement or repair (cement-asbestos piping) Brake shoe or pad replacement or repair Wallboard(sheetrock) or wall plaster replacement or repair “Popcorn ceiling” replacement or repair Janitorial or maintenance work done in pre-1981 buildings Building demolition

20 Brief history of U.S. asbestos regulation
British physicians noted that asbestos workers developed lung disease in early 1900’s. Lung disease noted in American asbestos workers in 1930’s. Some companies actively suppressed this information. Dr. Irving Selikoff at Mt. Sinai Hospital in New York began studying asbestos workers in 1960’s. His published research led OSHA to adopt specific standard on asbestos in early 1970’s. OSHA lowered the PEL for asbestos several times through 1970’s, 1980’s and 1990’s. Dr. Selikoff also warned against hazards to workers who were spraying on asbestos insulation in the World Trade Center.

21 Thermal System Insulation (TSI)
Asbestos insulation on outdoor pipe Air cell pipes Damaged insulation on control valve

22 Thermal system insulation close-up

23 Asbestos air cell insulation (pipe insulation)
Visible asbestos fibers

24 “Mag” Pipe Insulation

25 Asbestos Duct Tape

26 More Thermal System Insulation
Asbestos insulated boiler Asbestos insulated furnace

27 Asbestos gaskets, rope and packing – may be round, flat or impregnated with waterproof sealant
Asbestos rope Damaged asbestos gasket Asbestos fabric in HVAC system

28 Usually in 1’ by 1’ or 2’ by 4’ sizes
Asbestos Ceiling Tile Tile close-up Usually in 1’ by 1’ or 2’ by 4’ sizes

29 Asbestos shingle siding

30 Asbestos Roofing Material

31 Nicolite asbestos roofing felt over skip sheeting

32 Nicolite roofing debris

33 Popcorn overspray in electrical junction box

34 Knob and Tube asbestos wiring

35 Asbestos wiring (knob and tube)

36 Vinyl asbestos and asphalt asbestos flooring

37 Asbestos Sheet Vinyl Uncontrolled sheet vinyl removal

38 Sprayed-on surfacing material
Acoustical material

39 Spray-on insulation containing asbestos

40 Asbestos fireproofing in ceiling and above dropped ceiling

41 Popcorn-orange peel-knock down Surfacing Material

42 Dry popcorn ceiling removal

43 Popcorn Ceiling Material
### Uncontrolled popcorn ceiling removal job damaged and friable popcorn ceiling material

44 Fire-damaged popcorn ceiling material
Ceiling showing damage Popcorn ceiling material dropped onto furniture

45 Chimney flue packing (mud) containing asbestos

46 Asbestos Mill Board

47 Glue/Mastic buttons or dots-ceiling tile, chalk boards, cove base mastic

48 Cement-asbestos pipe (Transite)
Buried cement asbestos pipe in Tri-cities area

49 Asbestos Window Putty

50 Asbestos Brake Pads & Discs

51 Asbestos in joint compound and plaster

52 Asbestos in electrical panel

53 Rock Wool Insulation – for comparison

54 How do asbestos fibers get in the air?
Asbestos is most hazardous when it is FRIABLE. Physical disturbance of asbestos-containing materials (ACM) suspends fibers in the air. Friable: can be easily crumbled or crushed by hand, releasing fibers into the air Very small fibers stay in the air for long periods Damaged or deteriorated ACM increases friability

55 How do asbestos fibers get in the air?
Some typical activities and situations that can result in asbestos exposure: Mechanical action on ACM (cutting, sawing, grinding, sanding, drilling, buffing, etc.) Disturbing/breaking ceiling tiles Removing/replacing insulation Disturbing sprayed-on asbestos Asbestos abatement projects Un-surveyed construction projects on older buildings Debris from disturbance of “popcorn” ceiling

56 DOSH Asbestos Regulations
RCW Asbestos Safety Act WAC Part I-1 Occupational Health-Asbestos WAC Asbestos Certification & Training WAC Construction regulations which refer to WAC

57 EPA Asbestos Environmental Regulations
AHERA (Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act ) NESHAP National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) Regulatory Agencies enforcing NESHAP Department of Ecology Local Air Pollution Authorities Washington State Department of Health & county health departments

58 Building/Facility Owners Responsibilities
Determine presence, location, and quantity of any ACM/PACM Inform affected contractors, employees and tenants Have “Good Faith” Inspection done before any construction/maintenance work or project bidding Allow only certified individuals to perform work Submit Notice of Asbestos Abatement Project to L&I at least ten days before work begins

59 “ACM” and “PACM” Asbestos Containing Material
Any material containing more than 1% asbestos by weight. Presumed Asbestos Containing Material Surfacing materials Thermal System Insulation Flooring Installed prior to 1981 Must be handled as ACM unless proved otherwise

60 "Good Faith" Inspection (Survey)
Required for all construction and maintenance: must be done by an EPA-accredited AHERA building inspector documented written report not required if assumed and treated as ACM Minimum fines of $250 per day if not done Both building owner and contractor can be cited!

61 Employee exposure evaluation and monitoring
Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL) 0.1 fibers per cubic centimeter of air (0.1 f/cc) 8-hour time weighted average (TWA8) 1.0 f/cc 30-minute short-term exposure limit (STEL)

62 Certified Asbestos Worker (CAW)
32 hours of initial training Pass 100 question test 8 hour annual refresher training Required for Class I asbestos work Can do Class II asbestos work, but not required

63 Certified Asbestos Supervisor (CAS)
40 hours of initial training Pass 100 question test 1,600 hours of experience required 8 hour annual refresher training Required for Class I, II and III asbestos work Subject to denial, suspension and revocation of certification

64 Certified Asbestos Abatement Contractor
Must have one or more Certified Asbestos Supervisor Must be a Washington licensed contractor Renewed annually Subject to denial, suspension and revocation of certification

65 Four Classes of Asbestos Work
Class I - removal of thermal system insulation and surfacing ACM/PACM Class II - removal of ACM which is not thermal system insulation and surfacing material Class III - Repair & maintenance operations where ACM is disturbed Class IV - Maintenance & custodial activities during which ACM is contacted, but not disturbed

66 Class 1 Asbestos Abatement
Requires Negative Pressure Enclosure (NPE) (Glove bags for pipe runs) Requires 3 stage decontamination Requires separate waste load out Requires Certified Asbestos Supervisor Requires Certified Asbestos Workers Requires L & I Notification if > 48 sq. ft. Supplied air respiratory protection Requires air monitoring Initial monitoring Daily monitoring Clearance monitoring

67 Communication of Hazards
Warning Signs for regulated areas visible before entering Warning Labels attached to all products and their containers AVOID BREATHING AIRBORNE ASBESTOS FIBERS

68 Exposure Control Program
Asbestos exposure must be controlled by one or more of the following engineering and work practices: Local exhaust ventilation with HEPA filter system HEPA-filtered vacuums Enclosure, isolation Wet methods Intact handling Clean-up, prompt disposal Housekeeping HEPA filter = high efficiency particulate air filter

69 Exposure Control Program -
Worker protection Personal protective Equipment (PPE) respirator, gloves, head protection, foot protection, coveralls Hygiene facilities washing, decontamination, change room Decontamination shower

70 Class II Asbestos Work Requires critical barriers not NPE
Requires intact, non-mechanical removal Requires wet methods Requires Certified Asbestos Supervisor Does not require Certified Asbestos Workers 8 hours of specific training Does not requires L & I Notification Air purifying respirators allowed (HEPA) Requires air monitoring Initial monitoring Daily monitoring Clearance monitoring

71 Specific requirements for other work
Automotive brake and clutch work Roofing, flooring, siding and gaskets

72 Class III Asbestos Work
Requires wet methods Requires local exhaust ventilation if feasible Must isolate the operation Requires a Certified Asbestos Supervisor Does not require Certified Asbestos Workers 16 hour of worker training required Annual refresher training required L & I notification not required Air monitoring required

73 Class IV Asbestos Work Contact but not disturb ACM / PACM
Asbestos awareness training required 2 hours initial Annual refresher required No air monitoring required No Certified Asbestos Supervisor required

74 Custodial/Light maintenance work
Housekeeping and building maintenance activities may expose workers to asbestos fibers if ACM/PACM is disturbed. Damaged asbestos pipe insulation Activities: sweeping vacuuming cleaning changing lights Some materials of concern: vinyl asbestos tile exposed piping exposed fireproofing popcorn ceiling Asbestos debris on floor

75 Custodial/Light maintenance work
Dry dust or sweep surfaces, ceilings, walls, or floors Disturb ACM when replacing light bulbs, etc. DO NOT: Sand asbestos floor tiles or backing material Pin or hang pictures, plants, or objects on walls or from ceilings covered with asbestos materials

76 Custodial/Light maintenance work
Dust with a damp cloth DO: Use only a HEPA-filtered vacuum to clean up asbestos debris Wet mop floors

77 Medical Surveillance Program
Medical evaluations for all workers who are: exposed to asbestos concentrations at or above PEL performing certified asbestos work 30 or more days per year Annual examinations at no cost to worker Records maintained duration of employment + 30 years

78 General Contractors “Asbestos Abatement Projects” may be subcontracted to a certified abatement contractor. Regulation requirements for general contractors Get good faith inspection from owner Pass asbestos information to subs Notify owner of new materials discovered Ensure proper certification of subs and workers

79 Asbestos Certification - Contractors
Contractors must be certified when they conduct “Asbestos Abatement Projects” (asbestos removal or encapsulation) in the following conditions: A potential of fiber release More than 3 square feet, or More than 3 linear feet

80 Construction/Maintenance Activities
Engineering controls, work practices Local exhaust ventilation with HEPA filter system HEPA-filtered vacuums Enclosure, isolation Wet methods Intact handling Clean-up, prompt disposal Housekeeping Prohibited practices sawing without HEPA filtering compressed air dry sweeping/cleanup

81 Construction/Maintenance Activities
Worker Protection Personal protective Equipment (PPE) respirator, gloves, head protection, foot protection, coveralls training on proper use Hygiene facilities washing, decontamination, change room

82 What is a “Competent person”?
Supervisors “Asbestos Abatement Projects” Other Class I, II, and III work > 3 feet Class I: surfacing materials and thermal system insulation Class II: other asbestos materials Class III: repair and maintenance Person trained in operations and maintenance for < 3 feet (EPA criteria)

83 Uncertified Asbestos Work
Allowed Activities Class II or III work with intact materials Class IV work (contact but not disturb) Unclassified work Examples: Vinyl Asbestos Tile (VAT) Asphaltic roofing Installing asbestos containing materials

84 Uncertified Asbestos Work (cont)
Supervisor Training CAS for Class II or III (> 3 feet) Worker training for small jobs Worker Training Class II--8 hour material specific training Class III--16 hour O&M training Class IV--2 hour asbestos awareness

85 Uncertified Asbestos Work (cont)
PPE and hygiene facilities Work Practices Wet methods Intact removal HEPA filtered vacuums Prompt cleanup and disposal Specific requirements for roofing, flooring, siding and gaskets (WAC )

86 Uncertified Asbestos Work (cont)
Prohibitions Sawing, chipping, grinding, etc. Compressed air Dry sweeping or shoveling Employee rotation

87 Summary Property owner or owners agent must do an asbestos “Good Faith” inspection (AHERA) No requirement to remove intact ACM Anyone who may encounter ACM needs a minimum of Asbestos Awareness training Damaged, deteriorated or disturbed ACM must be abated Asbestos abatement normally requires an asbestos abatement contractor Warning labels may be required

88 Further Information DOSH – asbestos webpage
OSHA – asbestos webpage Environmental Protection Agency – asbestos webpage Department of Ecology – asbestos waste webpage

89 Questions?

90 Dave Johnson

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