Presentation on theme: "Asbestos An overview of properties, health effects and Nevada Rules"— Presentation transcript:
1Asbestos An overview of properties, health effects and Nevada Rules
2Topics Covered Properties of asbestos Uses of asbestos Health hazards of asbestosActivities resulting in potential asbestos exposureAsbestos regulations
3General Overview 1.3 million workers exposed in the U.S. Construction Industryrenovation, demolition heaviest exposuresGeneral Industrymanufacture of asbestos productsautomotive brake and clutch repairhousekeeping, custodial
5Chrysotile fibers, high magnification Types of AsbestosChrysotile“White Asbestos”Amosite“Brown Asbestos”Crocidolite“Blue Asbestos”Most common:Image courtesy of EMSL Analytical, Inc. Westmont, NJChrysotile fibers, high magnificationTremolite (possible contaminant in vermiculite)ActinoliteAnthophylliteOthers:(mostly found as contaminants in other materials)
6Asbestos has been used for centuries Uses of AsbestosAsbestos has been used for centuriesEgyptians; Greeks & Romanswrapping pharaohs; lamp wicks, clothMiddle Agesinsulating armorIndustrial Revolutioninsulating boilers, steam pipes, turbinesTwentieth century –World War II + next 30 yearsinsulating; fireproofing; sound- proofing; decorating; strengthening
7Uses of Asbestos Thermal system insulation Surfacing materials Reinforcement of materialsFireproofingAcoustic and decorative plasterTextilesAsbestos insulated pipe in utility spaceAsbestos “CAB” siding
8Sprayed-on fireproofing material Uses of AsbestosFriction materials (brakes, clutches, etc.)Asphalt and vinyl feltsPapers and adhesivesFlooring and roofing materialsFilters, sealants, caulk, and gasketsSprayed-on fireproofing materialVinyl flooring
9Some Asbestos-Containing Materials (This list does not include every product/material that may contain asbestos. It is intended as a general guide to show which types of materials may contain asbestos.)Cement PipesCement WallboardCement SidingAsphalt Floor TileVinyl Floor TileVinyl Sheet FlooringFlooring BackingConstruction Mastics (floor tile, carpet, ceiling tile, etc.)Acoustical PlasterDecorative PlasterTextured Paints/CoatingsCeiling Tiles and Lay-in PanelsSpray-Applied InsulationBlown-in InsulationFireproofing MaterialsTaping Compounds (thermal)Packing Materials (for wall/floor penetrations)High Temperature GasketsLaboratory Hoods/Table TopsLaboratory GlovesFire BlanketsFire Curtains* Source: EPA
11Asbestos Containing Material Presumed Asbestos Containing Material “ACM” and “PACM”Asbestos Containing MaterialAny material containing more than 1% asbestos by weight.Presumed Asbestos Containing MaterialSurfacing materialsThermal System InsulationFlooringInstalled prior to 1981Must be handled as ACM unless proved otherwiseMany uses of asbestos have been banned under EPA and Consumer Product Safety Commission regulations. However, some materials where asbestos fibers are generally well bound in the materials were not banned.Previously installed products still pose a hazard to workers. Asbestos fibers can be released during repair work, demolition, and renovation of older buildings and structures containing ACM.
12Asbestos is an Inhalation Hazard Airborne asbestos fibers inhaled deep into the lung can cause damage.Breathable fibers are deposited in the alveoli, the ending small air sacs in the lungs.Body’s defense mechanisms cannot break down the fibers.Fibers cause damage to respiratory system.Fibers may also travel to the pleura, the membrane lining the lungs.PleuraAlveoli
13Asbestos-related Diseases Asbestos can cause disabling respiratory disease, cancer, and eventually death.Usually symptoms take 15 to 30 years or more to develop.Health effects from asbestos exposure may continue to progress even after exposure is stopped.AsbestosisMesotheliomaLung CancerOther cancers
16Lung CancerLung cancer causes the largest number of deaths from asbestos exposure. The risk greatly increases in workers who smoke.(70 per 100,000 lung cancer deaths in general population)Lung Cancer Risks5x higher risk than general population10x higher risk50x to 90x higher risk
17Other Cancers esophagus larynx oral cavity stomach colon kidney Evidence suggests that ingesting asbestos can cause cancers in the:esophaguslarynxoral cavitystomachcolonkidneyFibers can enter the mouth and be swallowed. Poor hygiene, leaving food/drinks out in contaminated areas, and carelessness can result in the ingestion of asbestos.
18Asbestos-related Diseases The potential for asbestos–related disease depends on:Amount of fibers inhaledLength of exposureWhether exposed worker smokesAgeDon’t smoke! An asbestos worker is at much greater risk of developing lung cancer if he/she smokes.
19How do asbestos fibers get in the air? Physical disturbance of asbestos-containing materials (ACM) suspends fibers in the air.Asbestos is most hazardous when it is “FRIABLE”.Friable: can be easily crumbled or crushed by hand, releasing fibers into the airVery small fibers stay in the air for long periodsDamaged or deteriorated ACM increases friabilityPhoto of friable asbestosNon-friable ACM (floor and ceiling tiles, siding, fire doors, etc.) won’t release fibers unless disturbed or damaged in some way.
20How do asbestos fibers get in the air? Activities and situations that can result in workers inhaling asbestos fibers:Mechanical action on ACM (cutting, sawing, grinding, sanding, drilling, buffing)Disturbing/breaking ceiling tilesRemoving/replacing insulationDisturbing sprayed-on asbestosDamaged/deteriorated ACMAsbestos abatement projectUn-surveyed construction projects on older buildingsWater damage, deterioration
21General Safety and Health Requirements You must implement the following measures to minimize employee exposure to asbestos:Hazard assessment; exposure evaluationCommunication of hazardsExposure and medical monitoring, notificationMedical surveillance, exposure recordsExposure Control Programwritten program required if TWA8 and/or STEL is exceededPermissible Exposure Limits (PEL)0.1 fibers per cubic centimeter of air (0.1 f/cc) 8-hour time weighted average (TWA8)1.0 f/cc 30-minute short-term exposure limit (STEL)
22Exposure ControlAsbestos exposure must be controlled by one or more of the following engineering and work practices:Local exhaust ventilation with HEPA filter systemHEPA-filtered vacuumsEnclosure, isolationWet methodsPrompt disposalHousekeepingHEPA vacuum unitsHEPA filter = high efficiency particulate air filter
23Decontamination shower Exposure ControlWorker training“Asbestos Awareness”Initially and annuallyWork practices, safety proceduresProgram elementsWorker protectionPPE: respirator, gloves, head and foot protection, coverallsHygiene facilities: decontamination, change roomDecontamination shower
24Communication of Hazards Warning Signsregulated areasvisible before enteringWarning Labelsattached to all products and their containersAVOID BREATHING AIRBORNE ASBESTOS FIBERSEntrance to regulated area
25Building/Facility Owner ResponsibilitiesDetermine presence, location, and quantity of ACM/PACM.Inform employers, employees, and others who may be impacted.Permit only certified individuals to perform work that may release asbestos fibers into the air.Submit “Notice of Asbestos Abatement Project,” which has to be received by Nevada OSHA enforcement section 10 days prior to engaging in an asbestos abatement project.
26Construction/Maintenance Activities The regulations cover any activity releasing or likely to release asbestos fibers into the air:constructionrenovationremodelingmaintenance, repairdemolitionremoval, disposalCovers work done in:buildingsstructuresmechanical piping equipment and systemsshipsother facilitiesAsbestos debris from demolition project
27Construction/Maintenance Activities Asbestos Training Certification:required when asbestos exposures are above PELsrequired for removal or encapsulation of any materials containing one percent asbestos and more by volumecovers contractors, supervisors, workers (depending on type/size of work)additional training (depending on type/size of work)Asbestos abatement area contained and enclosed
28Specific requirements for other work Automotive brake and clutch inspection, disassembly, repair, and assembly operationsRoofing, flooring, siding and gasketsCustodial/Light maintenance
29Thank you for taking the time to learn about safety and health and how to prevent future injuries and illnesses.For further information refer to: Asbestos Standard -29 CFR and 29 CFR