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Chapter 10 Presented by Bill Giesler Julie Pineau.

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1 Chapter 10 Presented by Bill Giesler Julie Pineau

2 Introduction

3 Old School Rules  The Assign and Tell Classroom  Teachers assign students a text to read and questions to answer as homework  Why read it? o Because it was assigned o To get through the material to answer homework questions

4 The Alternative? Bringing Students and Texts Together

5 Background According to Annette Jacobson:  Secondary school students don’t gain in reading skills  Secondary school students actually decline in ability to draw inferences from reading  There’s little independent learning from reading text books in secondary school  Most students don’t study text, but simply try to find answers and memorize “important” facts  Most teachers only test; don’t teach from text – they only ask literal questions from reading  Most students lack strategies necessary to cope and survive in subject matter classrooms Jacobson, A., & Oregon State Dept. of Education, S. (1987). Essential Learning Skills across the Curriculum. Retrieved from ERIC database.

6 Bringing Students and Texts Together… What does it mean?  Showing students how to use literacy to learn  Connecting literacy and learning to promote active and purposeful engagement with texts  According to Vacca and Vacca, bringing students and texts together involves instructional plans and activities that result in active student engagement and collaboration

7 Bringing Students and Texts Together… How?  Design and plan text units and lessons with purpose o Students respond well to structure o Students need a sense of where they are going  Design and plan collaborative interactions

8 Designing and Planning Text Units and Lessons with Purpose Organize instruction around objectives, activities, print, and non-print resources, and inquiry experiences  Content analysis is important for teacher preparation  Major concepts become objectives for the unit  Decide on a manageable number of the most important concepts  Important to prioritize  B-D-A is an integral part of unit design

9 B-D-A B-D-A What is it? Before Reading, During Reading, and After Reading activities BEFORE To establish purpose, activate background, sustain motivation, and provide direction DURING To guide an active search for meaning AFTER To extend and elaborate ideas from text

10 How We Tackled The Chapter? Show; not tell How?  An interdisciplinary unit plan; Spanish, English and social studies  B-D-A Activities  Co-Teaching

11 Why? Learning Objective: You will be able to incorporate learning activities that promote critical thinking, connect prior knowledge, and ultimately bring students and texts together in your own classes

12 Interdisciplinary Unit Plan

13

14 Teacher Role in the B-D-A Process  Motivation  Building and Activating Prior Knowledge  Presenting Key Vocabulary words and Key concepts  Review Previous nights homework and make connections  Develop Metacognitive Awareness

15 BEFORE To establish purpose, activate background, sustain motivation, and provide direction DURING To guide an active search for meaning AFTER To extend and elaborate ideas from text

16 Before Reading Activities  Before reading activities reduce the uncertainty that students bring to the assignment  Before reading activities prepare students to read  Before reading activities ask/cause students to approach the material critically  Before Reading activities prompt students to answer the their own questions they have generated from the reading

17 Before Reading Activities continued Additional information regarding “Before Reading Activities” They should:  Access and build background knowledge  Set a purpose for reading by creating curiosity about the text  Elicit personal reactions and experiences regarding a specific topic or character. In addition to the “Before” activity that we have planned, other techniques noted in Development and Teaching Strategies include:  Sort and Predict  Vocab. Alert  Text Feature Survey  Think, Pair, Share  Ending First Source: Orme, L., Masson S., (2000), Literacy: Development and Teaching Strategies

18 Spanish “Before” Activity

19 Spanish Class Activities that Follow Virtual Field Trip: The class will take a virtual field trip to Pamplona, Span. As a class we will visit and to learn more about ‘The Running of the Bull,” the annual celebration made popular by Ernest Hemingway in The Sun Also Rises. The class will explore text, images and videos. After the virtual field trip to Pamplona students will be asked to create a poster or brochure that highlights the festivities. (BEFORE)www.Pamplona.netwww.sanfermin.com Fiesta (The Sun Also Rises) and Por Quién Doblan los Campanas (For Whom the Bell Tolls) by Ernest Hemingway: Students will read excerpts and selections from each book both in and outside of class. For each reading students are to choose a quote on which to reflect. (DURING) Debate: After an examination of the following (see below) students will have to take a position on bullfighting and defend their views in a class debate. Students must withhold judgment and do their best to try to understand the meaning of the bullfight on its own terms. (AFTER)

20 BEFORE To establish purpose, activate background, sustain motivation, and provide direction DURING To guide an active search for meaning AFTER To extend and elaborate ideas from text

21 During Reading Activities During reading activities are important because …  While we (teachers) understand the content and what may or may not be important – most students do not  For students, each sentence is treated equally. With during reading activities we have the ability to influence and direct our students to think critically  Bridges the gap between students and texts

22 Collaborative Interactions Vacca and Vacca suggest including cooperative learning tasks during reading. Why?  Help students to comprehend text  Facilitate active participation  In small groups students produce more ideas, and takes greater intellectual risks  Smaller groups mean a smaller audience

23 Collaborative Interactions continued Different types of cooperative group learning  Jigsaw Group  Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD)  Learning Circles  Group Investigation  Group Retellings

24 During Reading Activities continued Additional information regarding “During Reading Activities” They should:  Motivate student reactions to ideas and prompt personal responses  Increase reader awareness of the author’s language and word choice  Facilitate comprehension of the selection are additional during reading activity purposes In addition to the “During” activity that we have planned, other techniques noted in Development and Teaching Strategies include:  Note Taking: 2-Column, 4-Column  Heading Questions  PMI Chart  Sticky Notes Source: Orme, L., Masson S., (2000), Literacy: Development and Teaching Strategies

25 English “During” Activity

26 English Class Activities that Precede and Follow Creative Adaptation of “The Sun Also Rises”: After watching the Youtube clip “Monsterpiece Theater – The Sun Also Rises” students will be asked to break into groups to create their own creative adaptation from the novel. Adaptations must be based on actual characters and/or actual events in the novel, however groups are encouraged to be as creative in their adaptations as they wish. (BEFORE) Journal Entries: Students will be required to write a series of first person journal entries recording their personal reactions to the events that unfolded during their travels with Jake Barnes, the narrator of The Sun Also Rises. Reactions should chronicle actual events in the book and how they personally would feel as if they were an actual character in the novel. Entries should accurately represent the setting of the major events in the novel. (DURING) Original Poetry: Write an original piece of poetry as if you were a poet from the Lost Generation. Make sure to keep in mind the general motif of disillusionment, or such popular themes of the Lost Generation as: discontent, aimlessness, aftermath of war, disdain for conventional morality, and/or disregard for conventional gender roles. (AFTER)

27 BEFORE To establish purpose, activate background, sustain motivation, and provide direction DURING To guide an active search for meaning AFTER To extend and elaborate ideas from text

28 After Reading Activities How do they help?  Post reading activities create a structure that refines emerging concepts  Extends thinking about ideas encountered during reading  Writing activities, study guides, and other after-reading practices are springboards to thinking and form the basis for discussions and articulating ideas developed through reading

29 After Reading Activities continued Additional information regarding “After Reading Activities” They should:  Prompt reflection  Help organize information and promote deeper comprehension  Prior knowledge and new information should be integrated through analysis and synthesis of the reading material In addition to the “After” activity that we have planned, other techniques noted in Development and Teaching Strategies include:  Sequence of Events  Fact Finder 5 W’s and H  Venn Diagram  Graphic Organizer Source: Orme, L., Masson S., (2000), Literacy: Development and Teaching Strategies

30 Social Studies “After” Activity

31 Social Studies Class Activities that Precede and Follow Compare and Contrast: Students will be provided a collection of images before the war and images collected during and immediately after the war. Students will be asked to break up into their groups and critically analyze the different meanings from a variety of artist. Students will be asked to reflect how the tone or the message from the artist has changed. For example, Compare and Contrast the difference between the work of Norman Rockwell and Otto Dix. (BEFORE) Reading Comprehension Worksheet: Each student will be given a copy of Hitler’s speech on the Treaty of Versailles (April 1923). Students will be asked to identify the important facts included in Hitler’s speech, provide questions or concerns that arise during their reading, and finally, while organized within their groups, list their response to each of the important facts that they each listed. (DURING)

32 Closing Open discussion


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