Presentation on theme: "The Revolutionary War 1776-1783 2 nd continental Congress was convened in response to growing unrest in the colonies in May of 1775. Benjamin Franklin,"— Presentation transcript:
The Revolutionary War 1776-1783 2 nd continental Congress was convened in response to growing unrest in the colonies in May of 1775. Benjamin Franklin, the oldest present, and Thomas Jefferson, the youngest present, were major players. George Washington, hero of the French and Indian War, was also present.
The Continental Congress tries Peace The Continental Congress sent King George one last document, The Olive Branch Petition, which asked him to recognize and honor their requests. King George refused to even read it.
The Continental Congress also…. Formed the Continental Army and made George Washington commander. Began a Post Office so that they could communicate with each other. Benjamin Franklin was named the first Postmaster General. Set up a committee to write a document to declare the colonies independent from Britain. It included John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Jefferson.
First Battles:Ticonderoga The war began before the Declaration of Independence was finished. Fort Ticonderoga: May 1775, Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys capture the British Fort and cut off supplies to the British from Canada.
First Battles : Bunker Hill The Battle of Bunker Hill was actually fought on Breed’s Hill in June 1775.
First Battles The Patriots take back Boston In June of 1776, the Patriots finally drove the British out of Boston. Henry Knox used. captured British canons he dragged from Fort Ticonderoga and pointed them at the British ships in Boston harbor forcing them to sail away to New York.
The war turns bad for the Patriots British General William Howe leads troops (including Hessians who were German troops hired to fight for the British) into New York and New Jersey. The Continental Army retreats into Pennsylvania.
A bright moment for the Patriots Christmas night 1776 George Washington secretly takes his army across the Delaware river and attacks and routs Hessian troops at Trenton, NJ. A week later he defeats the British at Princeton and takes back New Jersey.
The Patriots hold off the British George Washington’s plan was to only fight the British if he was sure he could win. He knew that if his army could remain “in the field” he could drag out the war. If he keeps the war going, the British might give them what they want, INDEPENDENCE.
Valley Forge The low point for the Patriots was in the winter of 1776-1777 at Valley Forge. Thousands of troops died of exposure and starvation.
The “up side” of Valley Forge von Stueben helps Washington train his troops in the ways of European fighting. As a result, Washington’s army was a well- trained, capable fighting force ready to defend their country.
Enter the French October 1777 the Americans defeat the British, commanded by General Johnny Burgoyne, at Saratoga. 1778 the French pledge support to the Patriots because they want to humiliate their longtime foes the British. They send troops, supplies, and most importantly, SHIPS.
The War moves South With France entering the war in 1778 and Spain entering in 1779, the Continental army was holding their own with the British. The British high command decides on a “Southern Strategy.” They would enter at Charleston and move through the south to defeat the Patriots. They believed there were many LOYALISTS in the south that would help them.
The War Moves South The Battle of Kings Mountain The Battle of Kings Mountain / Summer 1780. Cornwallis sends Major Patrick Ferguson into the mountains to root out the Patriot irregulars and protect the Loyalists. Ferguson warned the Overmountain Men that if they didn't lay down their arms, he would "march his army over the mountains, hang their leaders, and lay waste the country with fire and sword."  
The Overmountain Men Answer Ferguson Upon receiving Ferguson’s threat to march into his community, terrorize his neighbors, and destroy their homes, Isaac Shelby saddled his horse and rode forty miles to the home of John Sevier, another prominent militia leader in the overmountain region.
The militia leaders decided it would be best if they crossed the mountains on their own terms and defeated Ferguson on the east side of the mountains. Thus did Patrick Ferguson, the would-be hunter, become the hunted.
September 25, 1780, several hundred frontiersmen gathered at Sycamore Shoals.
The “Hunt” for Ferguson October 4, the Overmountain Men reach Ferguson’s base at Gilbert town(now Rutherfordton). Ferguson had moved east to Charlotte to be closer to the main British army.
The Chase Is On October 5/a spy informs the Overmountain men that Ferguson is headed for Ninety-six, SC. October 6/the Overmountain men reach Cowpens, SC and are informed by a spy that Ferguson is 30 miles away. they march all-night hoping for a battle.
The Battle of Kings Mountain October 7/ Ferguson has entrenched at the top of Kings Mtn. Patriot forces arrive, form in a u-shape around the mountain and at 3pm begin their assault. Around 4pm Ferguson is killed and the rest of his troops Surrender.
GUILFORD COURTHOUSE The Turning point of the war Fought at Guilford Courthouse, NC. American troops General Nathaniel Greene fought British troops under General Cornwallis. The Americans lost the battle but Cornwallis lost many troops and supplies. Cornwallis heads for Yorktown.
VICTORY AT LAST The Beginning of the End American and French troops surround Cornwallis who has entrenched at Yorktown awaited British ships with reinforcements and supplies. Siege warfare ensues. 28th September to 19th October 1781.
VICTORY AT LAST The Battlefield The French fleet blockaded the York River and the British were unable to resupply Cornwallis’ army.
The Conclusion The 2 nd Treaty of Paris was signed Sept. 3, 1783. This painting, by Benjamin West, shows only the American delegation because the British refused to sit for the painting.
AFTERMATH What the Colonies gained Preface. Declares the treaty to be "in the name of the most holy and undivided Trinity," states the bona fides of the signatories, and declares the intention of both parties to "forget all past misunderstandings and differences" and "secure to both perpetual peace and harmony." Acknowledging the United States to be free, sovereign and independent states, and that the British Crown and all heirs and successors relinquish(give up) claims to the Government, property, and territorial rights of the same, and every part thereof;British Crown Establishing the boundaries between the United States and British North America;(CANADA)British North America Granting fishing rights to United States fishermen in the Grand Banks, off the coast of Newfoundland and in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence;Grand BanksNewfoundlandGulf of Saint Lawrence Recognizing the lawful contracted debts to be paid to creditors on either side;
Aftermath (continued) The Congress of the Confederation will "earnestly recommend" to state legislatures to recognize the rightful owners of all confiscated lands "provide for the restitution of all estates, rights, and properties, which have been confiscated belonging to real British subjects [Loyalists]";Congress of the Confederation United States will prevent future confiscations of the property of Loyalists;Loyalists Prisoners of war on both sides are to be released and all property left by the British army in the United States unmolested (including slaves); Prisoners of war Great Britain and the United States were each to be given perpetual access to the Mississippi River;Mississippi River Territories captured by Americans after the treaty will be returned without compensation; Ratification(approval) of the treaty was to occur within six months from the signing by the contracting parties. Spain received East and West Florida under the separate Anglo-Spanish peace agreementAnglo-Spanish peace agreement