1. Establish naval blockade 2.Capture Richmond 3.Split the Confederacy 4.Prevent foreign intervention 5.Control the Mississippi River 6.Destroy the Confederate economy
1.Fight a defensive war: a war of attrition 2.Simply need a draw 3Need foreign recognition, especially from Great Britain and France 4.Need to be unified 5.Must fight war in the South: familiar territory 6.Capture Washington DC
Role of Technology ◦ Munitions ◦ Transportation ◦ Communications ◦ Medicine ◦ Industrialization Total War War on civilian population and on cities 0:00 14:00 20:00 29:00
After a string of victories; General Robert E Lee marches North. Army of Northern Virginia (Lee) invades the the Union in order to capture Washington DC Army of the Potomac (Meade) defends Washington DC They clash near a small college town in Pennsylvania on July 1, 1863 Union: 125,000 men CSA: 70,000 men The battle lasts three days.
Gettysburg: Day 3 (July 3, 1863): Pickett’s Charge The Copse of Trees: A View From Pickett’s Division
Lee retreats; no more attempts to capture Washington DC Over 57,000 casualties: killed, wounded or captured Meade fails to pursue Lee Confederacy doomed
U. S. Grant captures Vicksburg on July 4, 1863 William T Sherman captures and burns Atlanta Then “Marches to the Sea” and captures Savannah (1864) Moves North into the Carolina (1865) Grant lays siege to Richmond (9 months) Grant chases Lee in Virginia and defeats him at Five Forks Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse (April 9, 1865) Lincoln assassinated on April 14th
Over 622,000 die in the war Major Southern cities lie in ruins Southern infrastructure is destroyed Economy ruined 3.5 million slaves are freed