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How does emotion affect cognition? Evaluate one theory of how emotion may affect one cognitive process.

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Presentation on theme: "How does emotion affect cognition? Evaluate one theory of how emotion may affect one cognitive process."— Presentation transcript:

1 How does emotion affect cognition? Evaluate one theory of how emotion may affect one cognitive process.

2 Flashbulb Memories Highly accurate and vivid memory of a moment a person first hears a shocking event. Types of episodic memories (explicit) It is assumed that they are highly resistant to forgetting because of the emotional arousal at the time of encoding. It is a controversial idea. Evaluate one theory of how emotion may affect one cognitive process.

3 Flashbulb Memories The term “flashbulb” indicates the event registers like a photograph (great detail). It is often rehearsed because the event is important to us. Evaluate one theory of how emotion may affect one cognitive process.

4 Flashbulb Memories 6 features that people will remember… 1.Place 2.Ongoing activity (what they were doing) 3.Informant (who learned it from) 4.Own Affect (how you felt) 5.Other Affect (how others felt) 6.Aftermath (the importance of the event) Evaluate one theory of how emotion may affect one cognitive process.

5 Brown and Kulik (1977) Research on Flashbulb Memories (FM) Aim: To investigate whether shocking events are recalled more vividly and accurately than other events. Procedure: Questionnaire asked 80 participants to recall circumstances where they have learned of shocking events. Evaluate one theory of how emotion may affect one cognitive process.

6 Brown and Kulik (1977) Research on Flashbulb Memories (FM) Results Participants had vivid memories about where they were and what they were doing when the event occurred (like JFK Assassination). Results indicated that FM is more likely when the event is unexpected and personal. Evaluate one theory of how emotion may affect one cognitive process.

7 Brown and Kulik (1977) Research on Flashbulb Memories (FM) They suggest it is caused by physiological emotional arousal (amygdala). However, these ideas have been challenged…. Evaluate one theory of how emotion may affect one cognitive process.

8 Neisser and Harsch 1992 Aim: To see if FM really exists after a big ass event. Would they really remember it. Procedure: 106 Intro to Psych students were given questionnaire less than 24hrs after the Challenger disaster and asked 7 questions. Evaluate one theory of how emotion may affect one cognitive process.

9 Neisser and Harsch 1992 Then 44 of the students were contacted 2 ½ years later. Results Only 11 of the 44 even remembered they answered a survey. The mean score of the 7 questions was 2.95 out of of them scored a 0, and for 22 of them it was 2 or less out of 7. Evaluate one theory of how emotion may affect one cognitive process.

10 Neisser and Harsch 1992 Evaluation: It had high ecological validity (real event). Really challenges FM theory. BUT…maybe the challenger disaster was not personal enough. Evaluate one theory of how emotion may affect one cognitive process.

11 Happiness Theories Social comparison theory (Festinger): Ppl learn about & assess themselves in comparison to others Level of aspiration theory (Rotter): Action = based on potential gain; never truly happy

12 How does cognition affect happiness? Social comparison theory  belief that our happiness is affected by others Aspirational  people can never truly be happy bc they always set new goals

13 How does cognition affect happiness? Social comparison theory: ppl are unhappy bc they compare themselves to others Aspirational theories: ppl are unhappy bc they always have a new goal to meet


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