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Great Powers in Iran 1890 - 1977. The Great Game A.Battle between Russia and Britain over Asia B.Russian-Persian wars in Caucasus C.Britain signs.

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Presentation on theme: "Great Powers in Iran 1890 - 1977. The Great Game A.Battle between Russia and Britain over Asia B.Russian-Persian wars in Caucasus C.Britain signs."— Presentation transcript:

1 Great Powers in Iran

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5 The Great Game A.Battle between Russia and Britain over Asia B.Russian-Persian wars in Caucasus C.Britain signs Definitive Treaty in 1814 D.Reuter Concession, 1872

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7 Tobacco Rebellion A.1890: Tobacco concession to British B.Shiraz protests, 1891 ‒Led by Hajj Shirazi (cleric) and Seyyed Jamal ad- Din “al-Afghani” C.1892: concession cancelled D.Aftermath: Russia gained, UK lost influence E.Russian loans – : Qajar minister Amin as-Soltan meets with Russians to procure loans

8 Constitutional Revolution A.Russian defeat in Ruso-Japanese War 1905 – Russians unable to lend money to Qajars B.A constitution (mashruteh) and a parliament (Majlis) C.New shah, Mohammad al Shah, 1907

9 Anglo-Russian Entente A.Signed in 1907 without involving Iran in negotiations B.Dividing Iran up into three pieces

10 Anglo-Russian Entente, 1907

11 D’Arcy Concession A.British granted oil concession, 1901 B.Discovery of oil at Masjed Suleiman, 1908 C.Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC)

12 Masjed Suleiman

13 William Knox D’Arcy

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15 World War I A.German role: Wassmuss the “German Lawrence” B.British “secret” deals with Russia C.Sir Percy Sykes and the South Persia Rifles, D.End of the War, 1919 Anglo-Persian Treaty

16 Iran’s “Roaring” Twenties A.Soviet influence – Kuchek Khan and the Bolsheviks – A Persian Soviet Socialist Republic? B.Enter the USA, 1920 – Qajars need a new loan – Standard Oil in the North

17 C.Reza Khan – British-supported (General Ironside) rise of Reza Khan in the Cossack Brigades – Reform: Seyyed Zia and Reza Khan annul the Anglo-Persian Treaty – 26 Feb 1921: the Russo-Iranian Treaty D.US and UK response – Millspaugh Mission

18 Pahlavi Iran A.1925: Reza Khan formally becomes Shah – Qajars ousted B.“Modernization from above” C.APOC concession annulled 1932 D.UK pressure for a new contract – 1933 new concession

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20 World War II A.Sour relations with British over APOC B.An alliance with Germany? C.1941 British-Soviet Invasion D.Reza Shah abdicates E.1942 Tripartite Treaty F.Second Millspaugh Mission G.1944 Majlis outlaws foreign oil concessions

21 Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran

22 “The Persian Corridor”

23 Post-WWII A.First crisis of Cold War – Soviet troops remain in Azerbaijan Province B.The end of Soviet influence – Truman pressures the Soviets – Ahmad Qavam’s empty promise – 1946 Soviet agreement – Soviets leave Iran in May 1946

24 Mossadeq & Nationalization A.The National Front B.Gen. Ali Razmara becomes Prime Minister – Assassinated 17 Mar 1951 C.Majlis votes Mossadeq as new PM – 29 Apr 1951 D.Nationalization of AIOC E.Worldwide boycott of Iran

25 After the Nationalization A.Shah replaces Mossadeq with Qavam B.Mossadeq returns – Declares “state of emergency”

26 Mossadeq returns

27 After the Nationalization A.Shah replaces Mossadeq with Qavam B.Mossadeq returns – Declares “state of emergency” C.Operation AJAX – 28 Mordad / August 19, 1953 D.Mohammad Reza Shah regains power

28 Mohammad Reza Shah A.Ending the Oil Crisis – 1954 Oil Consortium B.Reforms and modernization – Creation of security forces: SAVAK C.The White Revolution – Khomeini: “White Revolution is a serious threat to Islam” – Exiled 1964

29 “Policeman of the Gulf” A.Image of a “strongman” B.Nixon Doctrine and the “Twin Pillars” – “Unlimited” quantities of nonnuclear weapons – IBEX and the surveillance of the Soviet Union – Fighting communism in the Persian Gulf C.The Shah’s OPEC speech – OPEC as a price-setter – 1974 Petroleum Law


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