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Unit Nine — The Diary of the Unknown Soldier. Pre-reading questions Have you seen any war film? Please exemplify. Have you seen any war film? Please exemplify.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit Nine — The Diary of the Unknown Soldier. Pre-reading questions Have you seen any war film? Please exemplify. Have you seen any war film? Please exemplify."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit Nine — The Diary of the Unknown Soldier

2 Pre-reading questions Have you seen any war film? Please exemplify. Have you seen any war film? Please exemplify. Do you feel like seeing war film? Why or why not? Do you feel like seeing war film? Why or why not? Can you describe the cruelties of war from the eyes of a solider? Can you describe the cruelties of war from the eyes of a solider? What do you know about the war in Iraq launched by the U.S.? Have you heard of the stories of 反战母亲 / 爸 爸抱枕, etc.? What do you know about the war in Iraq launched by the U.S.? Have you heard of the stories of 反战母亲 / 爸 爸抱枕, etc.? What questions do you guess an innocent soldier would ask about war before he was killed? What questions do you guess an innocent soldier would ask about war before he was killed?

3 summary of the text This text is composed of 3 diaries written by an unknown soldier during the WWII. The soldier came to the battlefield with an air of confidence and eagerness, ready to win. Soon after, he witnessed the cruelties of war and lost his life at last. The soldier, off and on, kept a score of his miserable experiences and thoughts, suing the inhuman war. This text is composed of 3 diaries written by an unknown soldier during the WWII. The soldier came to the battlefield with an air of confidence and eagerness, ready to win. Soon after, he witnessed the cruelties of war and lost his life at last. The soldier, off and on, kept a score of his miserable experiences and thoughts, suing the inhuman war.

4 While-reading questions Entry one: Entry one: What did the unknown author see in the battlefield? What did the unknown author see in the battlefield? How did he feel? How did he feel? Why did the unknown soldier call his fellow soldiers and himself fools? Why did the unknown soldier call his fellow soldiers and himself fools? What kind of rhetorical device is used in the first paragraph? What kind of rhetorical device is used in the first paragraph? What is the function of the rhetorical contrast? What is the function of the rhetorical contrast? What was the aftermath of the explosion like? What was the aftermath of the explosion like? Why did the unknown soldier ’ s thoughts jump from the aftermath ( “ a sea of blood ” ) to his longing for his “ darling daughters ” and beloved wife? Why did the unknown soldier ’ s thoughts jump from the aftermath ( “ a sea of blood ” ) to his longing for his “ darling daughters ” and beloved wife?

5 While-reading questions Entry two: Entry two: What did he determine to tell the families of those soldiers who died in the war? What did he determine to tell the families of those soldiers who died in the war? How did the unknown soldier view that on-going war? How did the unknown soldier view that on-going war? What was the unknown soldier ’ s attitude towards war? What was the unknown soldier ’ s attitude towards war? How did he strike home his attitude towards war in the text? How did he strike home his attitude towards war in the text?

6 While-reading questions Entry three: Entry three: What happened to the soldier at last? What happened to the soldier at last? What was his last wish? What was his last wish? Why didn ’ t the unknown soldier finish the last question? Why didn ’ t the unknown soldier finish the last question? With reference to the diary, what do you think the possible question is? With reference to the diary, what do you think the possible question is?

7 While-reading questions On the whole: On the whole: What were his situations in the war in which the unknown soldier wrote his diary? What were his situations in the war in which the unknown soldier wrote his diary? What was it, as mentioned in all the three entries, that encouraged the unknown soldier to live on? What was it, as mentioned in all the three entries, that encouraged the unknown soldier to live on? What do you think are the very cruel sides of war? How do you view war? Please exemplify. What do you think are the very cruel sides of war? How do you view war? Please exemplify.

8 After-reading questions Most countries spend a large amount of money on weapons to defend themselves though they are not at war. How do you view the matter of national defense? Most countries spend a large amount of money on weapons to defend themselves though they are not at war. How do you view the matter of national defense? It ’ s argued that these countries should spend the money to help their poor and other disadvantaged citizens. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? It ’ s argued that these countries should spend the money to help their poor and other disadvantaged citizens. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? Paraphrase Benjamin Franklin ’ s remarks: “ There never was a good war or a bad peace. ” Paraphrase Benjamin Franklin ’ s remarks: “ There never was a good war or a bad peace. ”

9 Structural Analysis The first entry The first entry The horrible scene of the war-----his wish to be alive-----his longing for his family The horrible scene of the war-----his wish to be alive-----his longing for his family The first paragraph provides a contrast between what the author saw in the battlefield and what he and his fellow soldiers had expected before they joined the war. The destruction (piles of rubble, lifeless bodies, etc.) of the war is poignantly portrayed with the soldier ’ s innocent confidence ( “ They all came here with an air of confidence and eagerness, ready to win ” ) The first paragraph provides a contrast between what the author saw in the battlefield and what he and his fellow soldiers had expected before they joined the war. The destruction (piles of rubble, lifeless bodies, etc.) of the war is poignantly portrayed with the soldier ’ s innocent confidence ( “ They all came here with an air of confidence and eagerness, ready to win ” ) The second paragraph is a description of the enemy ’ s air raid before the unknown soldier wrote this entry. It is a flashback. The second paragraph is a description of the enemy ’ s air raid before the unknown soldier wrote this entry. It is a flashback. In the 3rd and 4th paragraphs, the author, as a lucky survivor of the air raid, witnessed the aftermath of the bombing ( “ a sea of blood ” ). Besides, his narrow escape made him aware of the real possibility that he would be killed any moment. That is why the author ’ s thoughts jumped from “ a sea of blood ” to his In the 3rd and 4th paragraphs, the author, as a lucky survivor of the air raid, witnessed the aftermath of the bombing ( “ a sea of blood ” ). Besides, his narrow escape made him aware of the real possibility that he would be killed any moment. That is why the author ’ s thoughts jumped from “ a sea of blood ” to his

10 Structural Analysis The second entry The second entry His reflections on war, interwoven with descriptions of his grim situation in a small European town; His reflections on war, interwoven with descriptions of his grim situation in a small European town; (Facts: they are staying at the town, without food and ammunition when the Nazi troops are coming.) (Facts: they are staying at the town, without food and ammunition when the Nazi troops are coming.) (Reflections: war creates more problems, and “ Even one war is too many ” ) (Reflections: war creates more problems, and “ Even one war is too many ” ) The first paragraph consists of 3 points. The author begins with his remarks on the validity of war ( Sentences 1-4), and then turns to his grim situation at that time (Sentences 5-9), and shifts to those dead soldiers and their families. The first paragraph consists of 3 points. The author begins with his remarks on the validity of war ( Sentences 1-4), and then turns to his grim situation at that time (Sentences 5-9), and shifts to those dead soldiers and their families. The second paragraph obviously projects the author ’ s strong passions: his affection for his family (daughters) and his rage for “ selfish and ignorant ” killing and destruction. In the last sentence the author strikes home his attitude to war: not caring about each other is more cruel than killing on the battlefield. ( “ This thought makes me sicker than …” ) The second paragraph obviously projects the author ’ s strong passions: his affection for his family (daughters) and his rage for “ selfish and ignorant ” killing and destruction. In the last sentence the author strikes home his attitude to war: not caring about each other is more cruel than killing on the battlefield. ( “ This thought makes me sicker than …” )

11 The third entry The third entry The imminent death, and thinking of his family The imminent death, and thinking of his family One last question: Why should there be war? One last question: Why should there be war? The third entry has only one paragraph, possibly written before the author was killed by the Nazi soldier who was inspecting the trench. What readers can see in the paragraph is like picture taking with the focus shifting from the approaching death on the battlefield to the author ’ s envisioned peace at home. Then it ends abruptly with one last question about the sensibility of war, “ Why? ”, possibly with the end of his life. The third entry has only one paragraph, possibly written before the author was killed by the Nazi soldier who was inspecting the trench. What readers can see in the paragraph is like picture taking with the focus shifting from the approaching death on the battlefield to the author ’ s envisioned peace at home. Then it ends abruptly with one last question about the sensibility of war, “ Why? ”, possibly with the end of his life Nazi troops ’ invasion into their location; -----Nazi troops ’ invasion into their location; -----the author ’ s vision of lying in his own bed at home, waiting for Christmas; -----the author ’ s vision of lying in his own bed at home, waiting for Christmas; -----his feeling of being close to death; -----his feeling of being close to death; -----his vision of his daughters at home; -----his vision of his daughters at home; -----a Nazi soldier ’ s footsteps coming in his direction; -----a Nazi soldier ’ s footsteps coming in his direction; -----his last wish to get his diary back home; -----his last wish to get his diary back home;

12 Stylistic Features Diary is a unique type of writing in that it is not structured in a pre-planned way as is a piece of argumentation or a piece of narration. In a diary, the writer ’ s pen simply follows the flow of his thoughts. In other words, a piece of diary is usually “ structured ” by the author ’ s free association between the present, the past, and the future, interwoven with his relevant remarks. Diary is a unique type of writing in that it is not structured in a pre-planned way as is a piece of argumentation or a piece of narration. In a diary, the writer ’ s pen simply follows the flow of his thoughts. In other words, a piece of diary is usually “ structured ” by the author ’ s free association between the present, the past, and the future, interwoven with his relevant remarks. Contrast 对比 Contrast 对比 The first paragraph in the first entry provides a contrast between what the author saw in the battlefield and what he and his fellow soldiers had expected before they joined the war The first paragraph in the first entry provides a contrast between what the author saw in the battlefield and what he and his fellow soldiers had expected before they joined the war.

13 Stylistic Features Metaphor 暗喻 Metaphor 暗喻 -----All I can say to describe the aftermath of the explosion is that it is a sea of blood All I can say to describe the aftermath of the explosion is that it is a sea of blood. Metonymy 换喻,转喻 Metonymy 换喻,转喻 -----The kettle boils(the water in the kettle boils -----The kettle boils(the water in the kettle boils -----I hope the garden that they planted is growing I hope the garden that they planted is growing The whole church is singing a song The whole church is singing a song The gray hair should be respected The gray hair should be respected.


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