Presentation on theme: "Building an Islamic state"— Presentation transcript:
1 Building an Islamic state The Iranian Revolution and its aftermathMuslim clergy and soldiers clasp hands in friendship atop an armored personnel carrier.Printed in Time magazine, January 29, 1979From:
2 A cartoon believed to have been published around January, 1980, depicting post-revolution chaos. The artist is unknown. Posted on the Iranian newsgroup soc.culture.iranian
6 Iran Prior to Revolution: A very hasty comparative overview Pre-20th century state: Safavid and Qajar empiresQajar rule: decentralized, diffuseImperialism/ColonialismBritish and Russian spheres of influenceEarly authoritarian state-buildingPahlavi rule,Reza Shah,Muhammad Reza Shah,A wall in Tehran, 1978 : "Kings are the disgrace of history; you are the most disgraceful king. Death to Imperialism." From:
7 State-building under Reza Shah: brief notes SecularismNew civil code (1928)Secular judicial systemCentralizationCreation of police force, civil serviceCosmetic “westernization”Hat law (1935)Veil banned (1936)NationalismFrom “Persia” to “Iran”New state school curriculaTurkey & Iran compared: the early periodInstitutions of governmentOccupation
8 State consolidation: Muhammad Reza Shah Entrenching the monarchy1953 coup against MosaddeqCreation of internal security organization, SAVAKTight political controlUS aid & oil revenuepatronageThe “White Revolution”Large-scale industrial development, literacy, education, land reformAfter 1975, one-party stateHarsh police rule, systematic tortureForced “westernization”Devaluation of the Ulama & Islam
9 1979 Iranian Revolution: Why Rising popular oppositionAuthoritarianismEconomic woesUrban middle class sufferingShah’s reliance on foreign expertsCracks in the regimeUS & NGO pressureModerate reformsCrisesEconomic recessionprotest & suppression“The Shah had a lot of sympathy for the poor.”Cartoon by Iraj Zare; re-printed in Hassan Javadi's Satire in Persian Literature.
10 Left, Muhammad Reza Shah in London, as covered by a Belgian tabloid Left, Muhammad Reza Shah in London, as covered by a Belgian tabloid. Right, Muhammad Reza with his son. Photos:
11 1979 Iranian Revolution: Three visions, and then two (and then one) Representatives of three different and conflicting visions of the new Iran. Left, secular reformer Bani-Sadr; middle, constitutional liberal Mehdi Bazargan, who originally proposed retaining the Shah under a constitutional monarchy, and later, the first prime minister of the new Iranian republic; and right, Ayatollah Khomeini. Photo courtesy of Nikki Keddie, from Bill Cleveland, A History of the Modern Middle East, p. 424.
12 After the Shah: competing visions 1st (early Revolution) VisionModerate Constitutional Monarchy(Mehdi Bazargan, the Freedom Movement & Ali Shari’ati)2nd VisionSecular Republic -- respecting but not controlled by Shi’ism3rd Vision:Theocracy-government of Ulama
13 Iranian Revolution: Who A. KhomeiniModerate, politicized UlamaRadical UlamaBazaari merchantsTheological studentsUrban workersSecular studentsSecular Urban IntellectualsOil workers on strike, 1978.
14 Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, 1902-1989 Exiled,Velayet-e Faqih (Guardianship of the jurisprudent)Photos of the Ayatolloh Khomeini, from
15 "Anti-government demonstrators in Tehran set fire to portraits of the Shah and his family." From the November 20, 1978, issue of Time magazineAyatollah Khomeini in the Paris suburb of Neauphle le Chateau, late 1978.Photo by Hatami
16 1979 Iranian Revolution: How Early days of protest & suppressionpamphlets,cassettes demonstrationsViolent suppression & continued resistanceGrowing confrontationSept “Black Friday” in Tehran: wave of protests and violent suppressionStrikes, paralysis of Iranian economy, huge demonstrations, defections in the armyJan M. Reza Shah flees the countryFeb. 1: A. Khomeini returns to IranMain headline: "2,500-year-old despotic monarchy collapses. Cities liberated by the revolutionary army." Kayhan newspaper, February 11, 1979
17 The chaos after the revolution: the first new Islamic-Iranian state KhomeiniWho exactly should rule, and how??Presidency &Prime MinistryMonarchy replaced by new Islamic republic (March 1979):But what was an “Islamic Republic?”Council of GuardiansIssued laws, decrees,veto power over PMVarious political partiesLocalcommitteesRevolutionaryTribunalsArmedForcesRevolutionaryGuards
18 Foreign crises * US hostage crisis, Nov. 1979 Newsweek, February 26, 1979* US hostage crisis, Nov. 1979* Iran-Iraq War, : about 200,000 Iranians die
19 Internal resistance & purges Photos:Former SAVAK chief and three colleagues lie dead after their execution.: Resistance and Suppression: 10,000 Iranians die
20 After the Revolution (or, the 2nd revolution): The second Islamic-Iranian state
21 Structure of Government* Council of Guardians12 membersCan veto Majlis legislationExpediency Council(mediates disputes betweenMajlis & Guardian Council)CabinetParliament(Majlis)Elected every 4 years293 membersSupremeLeader (faqih)Armed ForcesAssembly ofExperts* 86 clericsPresident* 4-year terms (max. 2)JudiciaryElectorate* The Iranian Constitution was first passed in 1979 and revised in In addition, some of the government institutions presented here were created after This slide presents the current (2004) structure of the government. This chart was in part modeled on one created by the BBC.
22 The New Theocracy Further changes & later reforms Economy: state control, privatizationExpansion of public sector (later unsuccessful attempts to contract this)Creation of foundations to oversee former regime’s propertyNationalization of industries, banks, businessesForced departure of foreign companies (1979)Rationing, subsidies, price controls, redistribution of property1988 and after: liberalization packagenew privatization, reduction of govt subsidies, promotion of exportsBut oil still provides 40-50% of government incomeNew legal codeSharia legal codesPolygamy, free male divorce, child custody to fathers in initial post-Revolution phase; increasingly challenged in 1980s
23 Social reforms (and re-reforms) Cultural revolution,University purgesNew dress codesGender segregationOutlawing of music and liquorReligious education in schoolsOther Social reforms“Reconstruction Jihad”: Improved rural conditionsImproved education and public healthInitial discouragement of women’s education soon changedRise in female literacy: 36% in 1976; 72% in 1996Grassroots primary health careBetter family planning: drastic reduction in birthrate after 1988Photo: BBC