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Defeating Japan and the Aftermath of the War 21.5.

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Presentation on theme: "Defeating Japan and the Aftermath of the War 21.5."— Presentation transcript:

1 Defeating Japan and the Aftermath of the War 21.5

2 Change in the Presidency FDR died on April 12, 1945 Vice President Harry Truman took office Truman had to make some of the most difficult decisions of the war

3 Iwo Jima U.S. needed islands closer to Japan than the Mariana Islands (planes could barely make it) Iwo Jima perfect position Difficult terrain: dormant volcano, ash ravines, caves (also network of Japanese tunnels) 6,800 marines killed but the island was captured

4 Devastation by Firebombs Gen. LeMay, commander of B29s on Mariana Islands, begins using bombs filled with napalm –Controversial because they caused many civilian casualties These bombs exploded and then started fires March 9, 1945- Tokyo firebombed –Strong winds caused intense fires –Killed 80,000+ people –Video

5 Navajo Code Talkers Military sought a more secure way to speak in code Navajo language perfect for this: no written alphabet, language known by a very small group, Navajo could develop their own codes Examples: “jay-sho”- buzzard (bomber), “lotso”- whale (battleship), “na- ma-si”-potatoes (grenades)

6 Trying to Force Japan to Surrender Through strenuous battles, the U.S. takes Okinawa (June 1945) This invasion caused Emperor Hirohito to seek surrender Many Japanese willing to surrender but they wanted Hirohito to stay in power –The U.S. blamed him for the war so this was not an option

7 Manhattan Project FDR started this secret program in 1942; headed by Gen. Leslie Groves Made in response to fear of Germans developing an atomic weapon First nuclear reactor made at University of Chicago (Szilard and Fermi) J. Oppenheimer lead team to develop atomic bomb in Los Alamos, New Mexico –U.S. detonates first atomic bomb here (July 1945)

8 Dropping the A-Bomb Much controversy surrounded the decision to drop the bomb Truman decided to drop it Allies threatened Japan with “prompt and utter destruction” if it didn’t surrender, and it didn’t Hiroshima: August 6, 1945, bomb dropped by Enola Gay, killed 80,000- 200,00 people instantly Nagasaki: August 9, 1945, 35,000- 74,000 people killed


10 Japan’s Surrender In addition to the dropping of the atomic bombs, USSR declared war on Japan This pushed Japan over the edge and it surrendered Date: August 15, 1945, called V-J Day

11 Aftermath of the War--United Nations April 25, 1945--U.N. charter is created in San Francisco Structure: –General Assembly: composed of member nations, each with one vote –Security Council: composed of 11 countries, with permanent countries (Britain, France, China, Soviet Union, U.S.), has veto power Universal Declaration of Human Rights- based on many of Eleanor Roosevelt’s ideals (she served as Chair of Commission on Human Rights

12 Aftermath of the War-- Nuremburg Trials International Military Tribunal- U.S., U.S.S.R, U.K., France put German and Japanese officials of trials At Nuremburg Trials, 22 Nazi leaders persecuted (3 acquitted, 7 prison sentences, 12 put to death) In Japan, 25 leaders charged with war crimes The emperor was not charged (U.S. feared this would cause further turmoil with Japan)

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