Presentation on theme: "Mallika Khwanmuang Phatcharapol Udomluck Jitsupa Litleangdej ------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 th year medical students."— Presentation transcript:
Mallika Khwanmuang Phatcharapol Udomluck Jitsupa Litleangdej ------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 th year medical students of Naresuan university, Phitsanulok, Thailand
Casualty due to accident is the third cause of death following to cancer and cardiovascular disease Head injury is the most common site (30%) of all injuries. Mortality rate of severe head injury is 29% and is increasing steadily CT brain is gold standard for diagnosis of intracerebral hemorrhage which requires specialized instruments and only available in tertiary center
There is increasing trends of screening patient before performing CT brain based on clinical characteristics of patient because of its availability, cost and specialist requirements. The study objective is to define clinical characteristic criteria for screening patient who is at risk of intracerebral hemorrhage, which is insight for diagnosis, treatment, referral to reduce morbidity, mortality rate and cost for health on source section
Mild head injurypatients with GCS score of 13-15 Positive CT scan one that demonstrated an acute pathological state in the skull or brain attributable to head injury (Epidural hematoma, Subdural hematoma, Subarachnoid hemorrhage, Intracerebral hemorrhage, Hemorrhagic contusion, Hydrocephalus). Basal skull fracturesEvidence of basilar skull fracture including Raccoon’s eyes: periorbital ecchymoses, Battle’s sign: postauricular ecchymoses (around mastoid air sinuses), CSF rhinorrhea/otorrhea, Hemotympanum or laceration of external auditory canal
Head injury Mild head injury (GCS 13-15) Low risk criteria Moderate risk criteria High risk criteria Moderate head injury (GCS 9-12) Severe head injury (GCS ≤ 8 )
Clinical characteristic findings for abnormal CT brain results
The relevant literature contains many studies on the use of CT scan in patients with minor head injury, yet no consensus has been reached.
A study by Haydel et al. suggested that CT scan is indicated only in patients with minor head injury with any one of seven risk factors, the New Orleans Criteria. A similar study by Stiell et al. identified a different set of factors, the Canadian CT Head Rule. Both decision rules had 100% sensitivity for identifying patients with traumatic brain injury, but both rules had low specificities.
Servadei et al. classified patients with minor head injury as low-, medium-, or high-risk They evaluated patients with a GCS score of 15 requiring surgical intervention in these patients as 0.2%. Patients with one or more of these four symptoms (temporary loss of consciousness, amnesia, vomiting, or widespread headache) were classified as medium-risk head injury, and the risk of intracranial hemorrhage in these patients was determined to be 1–3%. They recommended CT scan for medium-risk patients.
1. Define definitive clinical characteristics associated with abnormal computed tomographic scan finding in mild head injuries 2. Guideline for appropriate requirement to perform CT brain 3. Guideline for management and referral
1. Can predict clinical characteristics of patients at risk for intracerebral hemorrhage in mild head injuries 2. Can reduce cost for health on source section for performing CT brain 3. Can discharge patients with mild head injuries who do not require CT brain and with no consequences after discharge
Mild head injury + Moderate risks + CT scan Moderate risks Yes Abnormal CT Normal CTNo Abnormal CT Normal CT
Data were collected on patient characteristics (age, sex time of injury), mechanisms of trauma and CT scan findings. Data were analyzed with chi-squared tests. The research ethics committees of the study hospitals approved.
Medical charts of 64 males and 45 females. An average age of 17-60 years. Mechanisms of trauma were motorcycle accident, 74; fall 21; and other, 12. Initial CT scan was performed on all 109 patients. Abnormal findings were identified in 28 (25.7%).
Univariable analysis from this study was found that age and sex were not significant risk factor associated with intracranial hemorrhage Clinical characteristics that had significant associated with abnormal CT brain scan (p<0.05) was significant subgaleal swelling
All patients who had significant subgaleal swelling were found that accompanied with other symptoms. Therefore, we used the Crude analysis to find the potential confounder by choose co-symptoms which had p-value<0.2. There were loss of consciousness, basal skull fracture, and multiple traumas. But, from analysis, these symptoms did not affect the relation.
We cannot certainly conclude that the patients who had subgaleal swelling symptom were also associated with abnormal CT brain scan everyone. Because of Small size of sample Incomplete medical record some patients did not perform the CT brain scan
This research was studied only at Naresuan university hospital that can not refer to another population of patients with mild head injury. Design of this study would be better in prospective cohort study design
Patients with mild head injury who had significant subgaleal swelling and other symptoms which were risk to intracranial hemorrhage should perform computed tomography brain scan. Current study findings demand future researches in larger population by prospective cohort study design in the future.
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