Parietal Lobe Functions Sense of touch Spatial and Visual perception Differentiation of size, shapes, and colors Occipital Lobe Functions Vision Cerebellum Lobe Functions Balance Skilled motor activity Coordination Visual perception Brain Stem Functions Breathing Arousal and consciousness Attention and concentration Heart rate Sleep and wake cycles Frontal Lobe Functions Attention and concentration Organization Speaking (expressive language) Motor planning and initiation Personality Mental flexibility Inhibition of behavior Emotions Problem solving Planning and anticipation Temporal Lobe Functions Memory Understanding language (receptive language) Sequencing Hearing
What is normal aging in the brain? Reduction in short term memory retention Decline in processing speed, including motoric and mental processing Physically, the brain decreases in weight and volume (5-10% between 20-90 yrs old) Changes to the grooves in the brain Increase in neurofibriliary tangles Formation of plaques
Incidence of TBI 1.7 million people sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Injury Prevention, the leading causes of TBI are: Falls (35.2%) Motor vehicle-traffic crashes (17.3%) Struck by/against events (16.5%) Assaults (10%
Diffuse Axonal Injury (TBI) Concussion (TBI) Contusion (TBI) Coup-contre coup injury (TBI) Second Impact Syndrome (TBI) Open and Closed Head Injuries Penetrating Injury (TBI) Shaken Baby Syndrome (TBI)
All normal aging biology occurs but at an accelerated rate following a TBI, including: Decrease in Neuroplasticity Acceleration of brain atrophy
Loss of skills gained in rehabilitation. Increased risk for injuries from falls and other impact injuries. Acuity of senses diminishes Increased risk for other injuries. Increase in medical needs Increased risk for social isolation. General decrease in endurance, strength and range of motion. Decrease in independent living skills. Other issues that can affect the aging TBI survivor
Possibly!….those factors would include: Age at injury Area of brain injured Type of TBI Genetics/Family History According to a study in 2002, By J. Victoroff, which looked at the role of previous TBI as a risk factor for dimentia, and Alzheimers. Overall, head trauma with a loss of consciousness was present in 80% of the Alzhemier’s groups vs. the non-alzheimer’s group.