Lecture 01 Introduction Textile and Clothing Merchandising
Course Objective Want to make participants able to handle customer’s enquiries, costing and pricing, sampling process, and formal coordination with other departments as well as with customers
Course Description Synopsis of textile and clothing merchandising. Will adequately cover significant topics related to textile and clothing merchandising. Main focus will be enquiries handling, product pricing, and coordination with production departments and fluent communication with customers.
Teaching Methodology Class lectures Group discussion Seminars Presentations Industry Visit
Material Books Class notes Hand-outs Survey of the industry Interviews of industry leaders Net surfing
Assignments and Term Project Individual and group assignments Interaction with industry Independent industry visits Interview with industry leaders
Quizzes Announced and unannounced Concept base 30 minutes 6-8 in numbers
Attendance Policy Five classes missing means “Grade F” Five minutes late means no entrance in class Have to justify five minutes late Class will start at exact time INSHALLAH Missing of one class means losing one mark
Lecture 02 International Textile and Clothing Trade International Share of different countries and Growth RateGrowth Rate
Lecture Three Performance of Pakistan Textile and Clothing Industry
DescriptionValue/Share (%) Exports67 % of total exports (US $ 7.5 Billion) Manufacturing46% of total manufacturing Employment38 % of total employment GDP11 % of total GDP Investment31% of total investment Market Capitalisation8% of total market capitalisation TaxesMillion US $ Salaries and WagesMillion US $
Clothing Made ups Clothing Clothing Accessories Buttons Zips Stitching thread Packing material Labels etc
Textile Exports Average Growth Rate in 32 Years (%) Share in Total Export in (%) Share in Total Export in (%) Total Exports Total Textile exports Cotton Yarn Fabric Tent & Canvas Towels Bed Wear Other Made- Ups Garments Hosiery (knitted garments) Textiles
Lecture 03 Marketing and Merchandising
Merchandising The promotion of merchandise sales, as by coordinating production and marketing and developing advertising, display, and sales strategies.
Marketing This is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services to satisfy customers
Sale An exchange of goods, services, or other property for money
Garment Industry Production Flow
Types of Production Order Based Market demand base
Market Demand Base Rare More common for basic items Mainly China is doing
Order Base Most common Brands have to follow this For special items For seasonal products For small orders For promotional items
Pakistan Garment Industry Mainly doing order base production Details are finalized by customer Designs are done by customer Supplier has to follow
Lecture 04 Role of Merchandising
Role of Merchandising Working as a Bridge between Buyer and Mill
Pakistan Textile Industry Working Procedure
Work Flow Fiber --- yarn ---fabric formation---wet processing—clothing
Merchandiser and clothing mills Mainly merchandising are demanded by clothing mills In other sectors mostly marketing people are demanded since they are producing according to market demand, while, clothing sector is producing after getting an order
Types of Garment Mills Woven Knitted
Textile and Clothing Textile All products made of fiber but not ready to be used by consumer, like, yarn, fiber, grey fabric Clothing All products ready to wear, like, shirts, shorts, trousers, blouses etc
Products Woven garments Knitted garments Made ups
Merchandiser for a Clothing Mill A key person in the whole chain First person being contacted by buyer All liaison through merchandiser Senior person in the hierarchy Most experienced
Responsibilities of Merchandiser Close liaison with buyers, buying houses Keeping firm well informed about the market situation Prediction about future market demands Receiving enquiries from buyers Cots calculation Offering prices Intimation to buyers about delivery time Confirmation about WO
Keeping buyer update about production status Passing all information to production people, account departments and all other relevant people Helping in conduction final audit Dealing with complaints and finally: Keep mill filled with suitable orders
Lecture 6 Required Communication Skills Writing Speaking Presentation
Writing E mails Letters Faxes Reports
Speaking On phone In meeting
Presentation Reports Progress Profile of the firms
For all you need: Good command on English Reasonable typing speed Clarity in pronunciation Computer operation skills Internet application Mobile phone uses Chatting techniques Bidding techniques
Communication Flow Communication: o The act of communicating; transmission o The exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, signals, writing, or behavior. o Interpersonal rapport
Sale Strategy Direct to Whole seller or importers Sale through buying houses
Direct Sale Importers Manufacturers
Indirect Sale Importers Buying House Exporters
Detail of Communication flow Importers merchandiser Head of account (importers) Buying House merchandiser Head of account (buying house) Head manufacturer merchandiser Head of account (manufacturer) Account merchandiser (manufacturers)
With in the mill Production planning and control Account department Quality assurance Procurement Any other relevant people
Ways of communication s Faxes Phones Faxes Verbal
Communication issues Message not clear Incomplete message Late message To person not relevant
Cares in Communication o Message should be clear o Get receipt of the message o Ensure message received by the person concerned o Action as per communication o Feed back on message o Involve other people in communication (copy to many other people) o Keep record of communication o Write time and date on message while receiving o Important: one should be responsible for wrong communication and you should not be this person
Effective letter writing boils down to knowing why you are writing a letter, understanding your reader's needs and then clearly writing what you need to say. Every letter should be clear, human, helpful and as friendly as the topic allows. The best letters have a conversational tone and read as if you were talking to your reader. In brief then, discover the Seven-Cs of letter writing. You should be
Putting your reader first For all writers the most important people are their readers. If you keep your readers in mind when you write, it will help you use the right tone, appropriate language and include the right amount of detail.
Ask questions to get a clear picture of your readers. Who are my readers? What do they already know about the subject? What do they need to know? Will they understand technical terms? What information do they want? What do I want them to do?
Keeping your business plan to the point Make a list of the topics you want to cover but don't worry about the order. Under each topic, list key words, examples, arguments and facts. Review each topic in your outline for relevance to your aim and audience. Cut out anything that's not relevant to your aim or audience. Sort the information into the best order for your readers.
Getting the right tone to your business letter Use Contractions Use Personal References So instead of writing: Our address records have been amended... write We’ve changed your address in our records... Instead of writing: The company policy is... write Our policy is...
Use Direct Questions Original: We would appreciate your advising us whether you want to continue this account or transfer it. Redraft: Do you want to continue your account or transfer it? Original: Please inform us whether payment against these receipts will be in order. Redraft: Can we pay against these receipts?
Writing your business plan in plain English Use active verbs rather than passive verbs Passive: It was agreed by the committee... Active: The committee agreed... Passive: At the last meeting a report was made by the Secretary... Active: At the last meeting the Secretary reported... Passive: This form should be signed and should be returned to me. Active: You should sign the form and return it to me.
Keep your sentence average length low I refer to my letter of 13th June and am writing to advise you that if we do not receive your completed application form within the next fourteen days, I shall have no alternative but to arrange property insurance on the bank's block policy. (One Sentence—45 words)
Shorter Sentences I have not yet received your reply to my letter of 13th June. If we do not receive your completed application form within fourteen days, I shall have to arrange property insurance on the bank's block policy. (Two sentences—13 words and 24 words)
Use simple words rather than complex ones As we noted in the preceding section, if you purchased additional printer options, such as a second printer tray, it is a requirement you verify its correct installation.
Simple words As we noted in the previous section, if you bought extra printer equipment, such as a second printer tray, you must check you install it correctly
Edit wordy phrases at a later datelater at the present timenow for the purpose of for have no alternative but must
Avoid jargon and technical terms Avoid abbreviations
Writing powerful headings for your business letters Banking code outlaws obsolescence for savings accounts Electronic banker offers taste of the future Euro-fish out of its depth FT-SE falls on foreign woes Kingfisher flies in the face of retail gloom Masters sells pub chain Whitbread stops 5,000-job plan
Conti--- Why Have an Annual Review? Why Invest Your Lump Sum? Are You Paying Too Much Tax?
Writing a strong opening to your business letter Thank you for your letter of 8th March 1998, which has been passed to me for my attention. I refer to previous correspondence in respect of the above and note that to date we have not received your cheque for the outstanding arrears. I write with reference to our telephone conversation yesterday regarding the above matter
conti answer a question ask a question explain an action taken express pleasure or regret give information
standard phrases Further to my recent I am writing I refer to my letter dated I refer to previous correspondence I write in reference to In respect of the above Recent correspondence Regarding With reference to With regards to
Writing a strong close to your business letter I would again apologise for the delay in replying and I trust that this has clarified the points you have raised, however, if you wish to discuss any points I have not clarified, or need any further information, you may wish to telephone or contact me accordingly. I look forward to hearing from you and in the meantime, should you have any queries, please do not hesitate to contact me. I regret that I cannot be of more assistance in this matter, and should you have any further queries, please do not hesitate to contact me.
overused business phrases Thanking you for your... Hoping for a prompt reply... Thanking you in advance for your assistance... Trusting this answers your questions... Please do not hesitate to contact me I trust this clarifies the situation
Conti -- according to our records on receipt of after careful consideration please do not hesitate to any further action please find enclosed as you are aware please forward at your earliest convenience trust this is satisfactory detailed information under separate cover enclosed for your information upon receipt of for your convenience urgent attention further to we acknowledge receipt in receipt of we regret to advise
Original: We trust this is satisfactory, but should you have any further questions please do not hesitate to contact us. Redraft: We hope you are happy with this arrangement but if you have any questions, please contact us. Original: Further to your recent communication. Please find enclosed the requested quotation… Redraft: Thank you for contacting us. I enclose the quotation you asked for… Hackneyed business phrases ruin a clear natural style; so avoid using them and choose your own words instead.
Business letter writing checklist Keep it Short Cut needless words and needless information. Cut stale phrases and redundant statements. Cut the first paragraph if it refers to previous correspondence. Cut the last paragraph if it asks for future correspondence.
Keep it Simple Use familiar words, short sentences and short paragraphs. Keep your subject matter as simple as possible. Keep related information together. Use a conversational style.
Keep it Strong Answer the reader's question in the first paragraph. Give your answer and then explain why. Use concrete words and examples. Keep to the subject.
Keep it Sincere Answer promptly. Be human and as friendly as possible. Write as if you were talking to your reader.
What interests or motivates them? What prejudices do they have? What worries or reassures them? What will persuade them to my view? What other arguments do I need to present? How are they likely to react to what I say? If you imagine yourself in your reader's position, you're more likely to write a good letter.