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Executive Decision Making at General Motors David A.Garvin Lynne C. Levesque.

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Presentation on theme: "Executive Decision Making at General Motors David A.Garvin Lynne C. Levesque."— Presentation transcript:

1 Executive Decision Making at General Motors David A.Garvin Lynne C. Levesque

2 index Intro Ⅰ. Alfred Sloan’s GM : Revving up Ⅱ. Coasting Toward Collision Ⅲ. Getting Back on a Common Track Ⅳ. ASB : The matrix in action Ⅴ. The Future of GM’s Basketweave Structure Comments

3 Intro

4 1908 설립 태동 (B.Durant) by 인수합병 구축 (A.Sloan) 위기 (1980 년 7 억 6 천만 $ 적자 ) 잘못된 구조조정 (R.Smith) 새로운 GM(J.Smith) 2002 대우 인수, 안정기

5 지엠의 리더들 Durant J.Smith R.Smith R.Wagoner Larry Burns

6 Ⅰ. Alfred Sloan’s GM : Revving up Billy Durant 설립 - 첫 번째 자동차 재벌그룹 ( 복합기업 ) - 산업내에서 첫 번째 수직통합형 회사 (by. M&A-25 개의 회사들 ) =>GM culture : internal competition, duplication were tolerated and encouraged 1920 Alfred P. Sloan,Jr. 임명

7 1. Strategy 1) Pricing pyramid “a car for every purse and purpose”

8 1. Strategy 2) Commitment to innovation -annual vehicle changes -high compression -overhead value v-8 engines -premium gasoline -chrome tail fins -fully automatic transmission -new financial product ‘General Motors Acceptance Corporation subsidiary’

9 1. Strategy 3) International diversification 1925 began to exporting cars purchased ‘Vauxhall’-British vehicle firm 1929 ‘Opel’-Germen operation 1931 ‘Holden’-Australia firm

10 achievements More than one-half of the vehicles sold in USA The first Fortune 500 ranking 1956 the first company to net more than $1 billion

11 2. Structure Multidivisional structure Divisions aggregated into groups. -new one in American business - reduced the nuimber of direct reports to the CEO ->CEO to focus on guiding the broad policies of the enterprise

12 2. Structure ① Management Committee role: ultimate responsibility -resource allocation -spending authorities -planning GM’s future resided member: the top officers of the company except Group executives ② Policy group -policy setting -supporting decision-making

13 Multidivisional structure *to maintain a delicate balance *M.C., P.G ->Coordinated control in the decentralized organization

14 3) Policy and Decision-Making Process P.Gs 달마다 표준과 정책결정 위해 모임 -plant design, specifications, new technologies, grades for materials, labor contracts, HR pay policies... -No formal authority but, expected to carry out the policies set Senior managers, Sloan 미팅 참석, 반대의견 등 논쟁 유도 ->Senior manager 들을 더 넓은 이슈로

15 3) Policy and Decision-Making Process As profit centers, the division developed their own plans and forecasts Hall mark of Sloan’s GM Analytical decision making at all management levels “the figures did not give automatic answers to problems” ->ROI 등으로 성과 측정

16 Results 수익증대 Balance 위해서는 환경변화 필요 Senior Management “horns of a delemma” 새로운 조건에 닿기 위 해서 관리 필요 고위관리자가 분리된 이들 을 관리하려 노력하는 희 망없는 직위 되지 않도록

17 Ⅱ. Coasting Toward Collision 1960s~1990s 환경변화 ① increased competition ② tighter governmental regulation&standards ③ proliferation of car models and platforms -1970’s oil crisis -> fuel-efficient car but, 빠른대처하지 못함

18 1. Strategy 부적절한 대처 →homogenization of cars across the divisions ≫ brand confusion Revenue 보다 cost 에 집중 Arrogance and insularity What was good for our country was good for General Motors, and vice versa

19 2. Structure In the 1960s, 1970s Cost and product proliferation →more centralized assembly division But, not enough Because of changes in vehicle structure Changes+lack of cost competitiveness =new organization with two car group (a dacades later) BOC(large cars) CadillacBuickOldsmobile CPC(small cars) CanadaPontiacChevrolet

20 3. Policy and Decision-Making Process 1980’s reorganizaion →slowed down decision making by adding a new layer of required review P.G. -recommending Companywide Policies To support Particular positions Existing divisional management review -Lining up needed votes before meetings -Arguing over transfer prices and overhead allocaions -Attending pre-meetings to eliminate surprises at the regular meeting

21 3. Policy and Decision-Making Process Larry Burns Wagoner ≫문제 있다 !! Jack Smith 1990’s “dinosaur” “death spiral” “inexorable decline”

22 Ⅲ. Getting Back on a Common Track 1992 and Beyond 1992 J.Smith as CEO P.G 없앰 2 개의 Vehicle groups 폐지 M.C→five member president’s Council Reduced the corporate staff Closed the executive dining room

23 1. Strategy Market share ↓↓ To overhaul processes Reduce overlapping product lines Eliminating similar Often competing Models Developing common Sys. For product manufacturing, design and development Speeding up Bringing more discipline to the Decision Making Process Streamling the bureaucracy Eliminating the interdivisional competition

24 2. Structure Restructuring! ⅠⅡⅢⅣⅤⅥⅦ①②③④⑤⑥⑦ ∴ → ≫ ↓

25

26 What’s ASB? You win by knowing when to push a little more global, and when to push a little less global. That’s the “race to the middle” and it’s a tough assignment. -G.Richard Wagoner,Jr. Matrix organization(J


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