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Design of Nature Reserves

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1 Design of Nature Reserves
Environment 121: Conservation of Biodiversity Professor Victoria Sork 16 May 2009

2 I. Designing reserves SLOSS debate oversimplifies choices
=single large or several small oversimplifies choices depends on how much land you are trying to optimize (e.g. 10,000 acres v 100,000 acres) advantages of large reserves: Contiguous areas - preserve intact communities of interdependent species. Contiguous areas - maintain viable populations of species that require large areas (e.g. large vertebrates). advantages of small reserves Can sometimes preserve a broader range of species

3 Island biogeography & reserve design
introduced in previous lectures emphasizes species richness, not species composition has led to the emphasize on size of reserve

4 Figure 7.6 Principles of reserve design that are based in part on theories of island biogeography (Part 1) pcb4e-fig jpg

5 Figure 7.6 Principles of reserve design that are based in part on theories of island biogeography (Part 2) pcb4e-fig jpg

6 Figure 7.7 Population studies show that large parks and protected areas in Africa contain larger populations of each species than small parks pcb4e-fig jpg

7 Considerations of reserve design
Disturbance regime Defn: any discrete event that disrupts ecosystem, community, or population structure equilibrium versus non-equilibrium small reserves are vulnerable to disturbances Concerns in reserve development Biological considerations Anthropological or cultural effects Political and economic constraints Threats and opportunities Goals of reserve (first three were proposed by Michael Soulé and Dan Simberloff, 1986) Preservation of large and functioning ecosystems (e.g. watersheds) Preserve biodiversity (e.g. Biodiversity hotspots, first proposed by Norman Myers) Protection of particular species or groups of species (e.g. California condors) Protection of ecological or evolutionary process (e.g California evolutionary hotspot project)

8 Six critical issues for reserve design: 1. Reserve size
species area curve habitat quality? How do we determine the appropriate size? Extinction-size relationships (recall island biogeography?) Population/single species approach Home range requirements Migration requirements MVP Ne and maintenance of genetic diversity Edge effects Disturbance regime

9 Six critical issues for reserve design: 2. Heterogeneity and dynamics
Heterogeneous areas have higher diversity Patch dynamics disturbance patterns patch longevity alpha (within patch) and beta (between patch) diversity presence in a patch is a function of colonization and extinction metapopulation

10 Six critical issues for reserve design: 3. Landscape context
What is the surrounding non-reserve matrix? industrial, residential, agricultural edge Administrative boundary is based on political not ecological considerations false edge = more protection within than without biotic vs. legal boundaries Area-perimeter ratio Smaller ratio more edge effect, fewer interior, undisturbed habitats more management, more cost Buffers influence land-use plans around reserve Human intervention direct & indirect legal & illegal

11 Figure Traditional rural landscape near Tokyo, Japan, with an alternating pattern of villages (black), secondary forest (dark green), wet rice fields (light green), and hay fields (beige) pcb4e-fig jpg

12 Six critical issues for reserve design: 4
Six critical issues for reserve design: 4. Connecting fragmented habitats Corridors periodic movement migration, seasonal movements immigration & emigration metapopulation context Wildlife corridors Fencerow scale edge, metapopulation Landscape mosaic scale daily, seasonal movements Regional scale MUMS= multiple use modules: central, well protected area surrounded by buffer zones. management to preserve core area What does a corridor look like? Line corridor entirely edge hedgerow, utility strip Strip corridor broader with interior habitat and patch dynamics 

13 Figure 7.10 (A) An overpass divided highway allows migration safely between two forested areas. (B) Individuals disperse between two large protected areas using smaller protected areas. pcb4e-fig jpg

14 Six critical issues for reserve design: 5
Six critical issues for reserve design: 5. Natural and modified landscape elements defn: relatively homogeneous ecological units modified landscape elements: roads, fields, industrial zones Exclusion of modified landscape elements is not possible Use of landscape elements around natural areas changes

15 Six critical issues for reserve design: 6. Buffer zones
zoning model reserve core buffer zone (compatible with core goals) transition zone (can link several reserve systems)

16 II. Designing Reserve Networks
Background Where should reserves be located? What are the criteria? How do we incorporate socio-economic issues (e.g. costs, feasibility, degree of threat). Formula for reserve networks Created by linking protected areas of different kinds Multiple organizations and multiple types of protected areas. Once priorities are established, linkages can be identified Minimum area problem Usually species based Goal: minimize number of sites, total area, costs Does not take into account persistence of species Maximal coverage problem Maximize the representation of a natural feature (e.g. species, but could be other issues). Goal: best coverage for a limited number of sites, costs, or area

17 Reserve Network Design: Methods
Gap Analysis: conservation planning process Date are compiled for a region, or conservation unit. Conservation goals are identified (e.g. area, species) Identify existing protected areas and gaps in coverage Identify areas to fill the gaps Additional areas are identified and conservation management plan is developed Conservation areas are monitored to see if attaining goals Geographic Information System System of storing, analyzing, and mapping spatially explicit data. Key to Gap analysis and reserve design in general

18 Figure 7.5 Geographic information systems (GIS) provide a method for integrating a wide variety of data for analysis and display on maps pcb4e-fig jpg

19 Case study 1: Sierra Nevada network evaluating multiple criteria (Davis et al 2006*)
Methods: 1) Use GPS data that include multiple layers for a region under consideration 2) Map region based on specific criteria Results: Rare and endangered species criteria (see figure) *Davis, F. W., C. Costello, and D. M. Stoms. (2006). Efficient conservation in a utility-maximization framework. Ecology and Society 11:33.

20 Reserve network in Sierra Nevada, cont’d
2. Use existing reserves 3. Monetary considerations

21 Case 2: Preserve genetic diversity in valley oak
Problem: Valley oak is most threatened oak species in California How do you decide where to preserve populations? Method: Use Maximum coverage approach (Sork et al 2007) Sork, V.L. , F.W. Davis, D. Grivet.  2007.  Incorporating genetic information into conservation planning for California valley oak.  In press in : Proceedings of the Sixth Symposium on Oak Woodlands: California's Oaks: Today's Challenges, Tomorrow's Opportunities.  2006 October 9-12; Santa Rosa, CA. Gen. Map of valley oak coverage (white areas) and sampling locations for valley oak genotypes

22 Valley oak case: selection of reserve sites, cont’d
Criteria 1: Base decisions on unique chloroplast DNA haplotypes Criteria 2: Maximum coverage of cp and nuclear DNA markers But, think about what this pattern of site location gives you. What do we learn when we look at patterns of cp versus nuclear genetic variation? Conclusion: Preserve coastal populations Conclusion: Preserve populations in Sierras and southern California

23 III. Protected areas as part of reserve design
A. What is a protected area? "an area of land and/or sea dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity and managed through legal and other effective means" (IUCN 1994) B. Approaches to preserving biological communities of protected areas Creating networks of protected areas Effective management Implementation of conservation measures outside protected areas Restoration of biological communities in degraded habitats.

24 IUCN: International Union for Conservation of Nature*
What is IUCN? “IUCN, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, helps the world find pragmatic solutions to our most pressing environment and development challenges. It supports scientific research, manages field projects all over the world and brings governments, non-government organizations, United Nations agencies, companies and local communities together to develop and implement policy, laws and best practice.” IUCN’s vision and mission “Our vision is a just world that values and conserves nature. Our mission is to influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve the integrity and diversity of nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable.” *

25 IUCN cat 1: Strict nature reserves or wilderness areas
Protected areas managed primarily for biological diversity Includes natures reserves established for scientific study, education, environmental monitoring, and maintenance of biodiversity Wilderness areas are maintained for recreation, for subsistence economic activities, and to protect natural processes.

26 IUCN 2: National parks large areas of outstanding scenic and natural beauty maintained for scientific, educational and recreational use usually not for commercial extraction of resources E.g. Yosemite, Lassen, Yellowstone National Parks Bryce National Park, USA

27 IUCN 3. National monuments and landmarks
smaller areas unique national interest E.g., Dinosaur National Monument, Denver, Colorado,

28 IUCN 4. Managed wildlife sanctuaries and nature reserves
requires human management

29 IUCN 5. Protected landscapes and seascapes
areas of land, coastline, and/ or seas with a distinct esthetic, ecological, and/or cultural value. Southwest Protected Landscape, UK,

30 IUCN 6. Managed-resource protected areas
water, grazing, ecotourism, timber, fishing preserves some aspects of biodiversity US Forest Service and logging; photo from

31 pcb4e-table jpg

32 Existing Marine Protected Areas
The official federal definition of an MPA in Executive Order is: “any area of the marine environment that has been reserved by federal, state, tribal, territorial, or local laws or regulations to provide lasting protection for part or all of the natural and cultural resources therein.” National Marine Protected Areas Center ( two characteristics in the Classification System (out of five characteristics) Conservation Focus Level of Protection Madagascar Marine protected area

33 Figure On Apo Island in the Philippines, large reef fish had been overharvested to the point where they were rarely seen pcb4e-fig jpg

34 Existing Terrestrial Protected Areas
Thailand: 8% includes parks and sanctuaries 88% of resident bird species other protected areas adds 5% of total land cover Orangutan, Leuser National Park, Thailand

35 Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica
due in large part to Dan Janzen 0.2% of area of Costa Rica Includes Guanacaste National Park, 82,500 acres 90% of Sphinctid moth species of Costa Rica Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica a1.htm

36 IV. Creating new protected areas
A. Identifying priorities Distinctiveness (or Irreplaceability) Endangerment, or vulnerability Utility B. Approaches Species approaches Focal species: rare species, endangered species, keystone species Indicator species: e.g. spotted owl associated with an endangered biological community Flagship species: "charismatic megafaunta"; protect whole communities and ecosystem processes Umbrella species: protection of these species protects others species and the communities (e.g. Project Tiger) IUCN- takes a species approach

37 Approaches to selecting areas to protect, cont’d
2. Centers of Biodiversity Conservation International and Biodiversity Hotspots Peaks of species richness 3. Community and ecosystem approach Can protect many species and ecosystem services at same time helps identify underprotected areas Worldwide, underprotected areas include: temperate grasslands Mediterranean forests tropical dry forests

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