Mammal Diversity 7Species which live associated with man 167TOTAL 52Bats 19Species found mainly or only in the mountains 89Species found mainly or only in the lowlands and hills NUMBER OF SPECIESMAMMALS IN SABAH
Importance of Wildlife Esthetic values - Many wildlife species are renowned for their beauty Recreational values are qualities assigned to wildlife related to sports or hobbies. Ecological values are characteristics of wildlife related to the relationship of a species or group of species to its environment, community, or ecosystem. Educational and scientific values are characteristics related to learning and teaching about wildlife. Utilitarian values are characteristics of wildlife that make them useful to humans Commercial values are qualities of wildlife that make them economically valuable.
Wildlife and Nature Tourism Sabah’s main tourist attractions are its natural habitats, wildlife and conservation products, with a unique mix of marine, lowland forest, and mountainous environments (‘from top to bottom’). Tourism revenue generated by wildlife and other nature attractions would be in the order of RM 420 million
Wild Meat – Rural Hunting Wildlife hunting is estimated to supply about 120 kg of meat per household annually (i.e. about 20 kg per person) 52 % of Sabah’s population is considered rural. Assuming that approximately 35 % of these are living in areas where hunting is important, the annual rural hunting in Sabah is about 11.7 million kg, with a local market value of about RM 58 million
Issues Affecting Wildlife Loss of habitats –Agriculture Fragmentation and disturbance of habitats –Agriculture –Logging Poaching
Wildlife Habitat and Development
Wildlife and Agriculture The palm oil industry has been significantly contributing to the economy of Sabah. However, the industry has been often criticized by causing loss of wildlife habitats, fragmenting ecosystems, disrupting wildlife corridors, reducing biological diversity. Habitat reduction and fragmentation also caused human-animal conflict
Illegal Hunting Logging roads provide access to hunting For food and medicine Some species become endangered or locally extinct
National Policies on Conservation Vision: –To transform Malaysia into a world centre of excellence in conservation, research and utilisation of tropical biological diversity by the year 2020.
Conservation Conservation is the management of a natural resource so that it can be sustained over the long-term. Conservation programs usually require some type of active management to achieve long-term sustainability.
Wildlife Conservation Programmes Law enforcement Establishment and management of protected areas Research Conservation awareness Other initiatives
Law Enforcement Patrolling to detect illegal hunters Road block to prevent illegal hunting and arrest illegal hunters Regulated hunting
Protected Area Network Forest Reserves –Protection Forests –Virgin Jungle Reserves –Wildlife reserves Parks Wildlife Sanctuaries
Research Ecological research Population monitoring & Survey Identification of important habitats / corridors
Elephant Research Population census and monitoring Identification of important habitats / corridors
Distribution of Elephant in Sabah
Distribution of Orang-utan
Population Mapping of Orang-utan
Distribution of Rhinoceros
Conservation Awareness Nature Education Centres Training and appointment of Honorary Wildlife Wardens
Other Conservation Initiatives Promotion of community- based ecotourism Implementation of Sustainable Forest Management Captive breeding of rhino Translocation of elephant and Orang utan Rehabilitation of Orang utan Rehabilitation of degraded habitats
Partners In Conservation Sabah Wildlife Department Sabah Forestry Department Sabah Parks Sabah Foundation NGOs: –WWF –HUTAN –SOS Rhino –UK Appeal Research institutions and universities National and international donors
Summary Wildlife are important resources for economic development and play valuable ecological functions. Integrated conservation actions among stakeholders are vital to achieve sustainable development