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Gender mainstreaming Evidence from the European Foundation’s studies ETUC Conference 06.03.07 Berlin Kasia Jurczak Research Officer.

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Presentation on theme: "Gender mainstreaming Evidence from the European Foundation’s studies ETUC Conference 06.03.07 Berlin Kasia Jurczak Research Officer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gender mainstreaming Evidence from the European Foundation’s studies ETUC Conference Berlin Kasia Jurczak Research Officer

2 Labour market trends: 4EWCS (2005) Increasing proportion of women in the workforce (but still short of Lisbon objectives: 56.3% v 71.3% for men) … accompanied by increased prevalence of part-time work (80% of European part-timers are women) Persistence of gender gaps (pay, time, employment rate) Occupational and vertical segregation Increasing proportion of women in managerial roles but still a 3:1 ratio of male:female managers… Working women continue to shoulder a disproportionate burden of unpaid household work

3 Combined working hours : women work the longest

4 Working time discretion by country Source: Fourth European Working Conditions survey

5 Flexibility?....

6 More women managers … managing women

7 More women managers … big variation by country

8 % of men with female managers

9 Gender pay gap

10 EIRO Comparative Analytical Report Gender and Career Development (1) European Industrial Relations Observatory (EIRO) study in EU-27 (except Sweden) plus Norway, conducted in Autumn 2006 Explores whether and how far career patterns are changing in response to the restructuring of work and organizations and how this impacts on women ’ s experience of careers Traditional career – full time appointment and long term, uninterrupted service with one employer Trade Unions – statutory and compulsory measures; all workforce; most activity Employer Organisations – individual and voluntaristic solutions; diversity management; gender issues addressed at the managerial level;

11 EIRO Comparative Analytical Report Gender and Career Development (2) Gradual erosion (rather than a transformation) of traditional career patterns, which is likely to improve opportunities for women. Women seem to be the main beneficiaries of the borderless careers; increase of diverse careers; careers outside organisations; combination of private and professional activities While the number of women in middle management posts is increasing the top of the career ladder is male-dominated; Norway – statutory quota of female board members of public and semi- public enterprises; Establishment type matters: female entrepreneurship in NMS; across Europe more women managers in SMEs and domestic companies

12 EIRO Comparative Analytical Report Gender and Career Development (3) Glass ceiling: a range of overlapping structural, institutional and attitudinal factors: unclear selection criteria for promotion (scope for discretion by senior management) women cut off from old boys clubs overall women more job rather than career focused lack of female role models at the top posts attitudinal factors: traits- forceful, competitive, objective – associated with man women less frequently than men tend to take up training possibilities (due to family duties)

13 Some Ideas for the future Centrally collect examples of gender mainstreamed agreements and have them available for the member organisations; Extensions of parental leave could be reserved for the fathers Valorisation and professionalisation of traditionally female occupations (personal social services, education) Target young women, when making their career choices, promote non- traditional career patterns: “A clever girl chooses science” Organise for training compatible with family duties Utilise European initiatives, such as EQUAL for studies and pilot projects;

14 For more information: Camilla Gali da Bino Sara Riso Kasia Jurczak (Gender


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