Presentation on theme: "Quality of Life and Health in Atlanta"— Presentation transcript:
1Quality of Life and Health in Atlanta Susannah LeeAudrey Leous, MCRPNisha Botchwey, PhD, MCRP, MPHSubhrajit Guhathakurta PhD, MCRPCenter for Geographic Information SystemsSchool of City and Regional PlanningGeorgia Institute of TechnologyJewelle KennedyDepartment of Planning & Community DevelopmentCity of AtlantaGeorgia Planning Association MeetingColumbus, GA
2Outline of presentation Background and purposeMethodsResultsDiscussionPlanning implications and applications
3Purpose of study Quality of Life Health ? Are neighborhoods with high quality of life also healthy environments?What are the characteristics of places that provide both high quality of life and are healthy?Quality of LifeHealthTransportationWalkabilityEconomyMorbidity?AmenitiesNutritionPublic SafetyMortalityHousingImage source: Authors.
4Scale of Study City of Atlanta 25 Neighborhood Planning Units (NPUs) How many neighborhoods are in ATL? 141???Image source: Authors.
5Methods Small area analysis – scale of data …. Image source: Authors. Track objective indicatorsGeographic Information SystemsCompare with resident perceptionsUsing coded responses from City of Atlanta Comprehensive Development Plan Update SurveyEvaluate health and quality of life of NPUsControlling for socioeconomic characteristicsSmall area analysis – scale of data ….Image source: Authors.
7Comprehensive Planning Legislation The 1989 Georgia Planning Act calls for local governments to develop and adopt a Comprehensive Plan.An adopted Comprehensive Plan is necessary to maintain the City’s Qualified Local Government (QLG) certification.QLG Certification is needed to be eligible for various state and regional funding.The City Charter mandates the preparation of a Comprehensive Development Plan every 3 to 5 years.The City of Atlanta was one of the first in the state to require Comprehensive Planning.
8Comprehensive Development Plan Georgia State Department of Community Affairs (DCA) adopted new guidelines / requirements for local government comprehensive planning in 2005.DCA sets the schedule for plan adoption.The 2011 Comprehensive Development Plan was adopted by the City of Atlanta in October 2011 per 11-O-1234.New standards added information and changed process.Plans have a 20 year time horizon
9Comprehensive Plan Components Community AssessmentCommunity ParticipationCommunity Agenda
10Community Participation Program The Community Participation Plan is the second part of the Comprehensive Plan.This plan outlines the strategy for ensuring involvement by the public, i.e. stakeholders in developing the “Community Agenda”.The plan has 3 components:Identification of StakeholdersIdentification of Participation TechniquesSchedule for completion of the Community Agenda
11Community Participation Program Identification of StakeholdersCity Organizations: City Council, Mayor’s Office, City DepartmentsCommunity Groups: NPUs, residents, property ownersAdvocacy Groups/Non-profits: PEDS, Park Pride, Georgia Stand UpCivic Groups/Authorities: AHA, MARTA, CIDsCity Boards and Agencies: Invest Atlanta (ADA), ABI, BZA, AUDC, APABs
12Community Participation Program Identification of Participation TechniquesInformative – Website, printed information, public displays, Council and Cabinet presentations, presentations and announcements at NPU meetings, press releases, meeting notices, presentations, etc.Public Input:Public hearingsOn-line survey
13Community Participation Program Identification of Participation TechniquesInteractiveCommunity meetings – each meeting held 3 timesIssues and Opportunities & review of visionIdentification of Character AreasVisions for Character areasCity Council work sessionsOpen House
14Community Participation Program Meetings will be held by grouping study areas and/or individual study areas depending on topics of discussionsImage source: City of Atlanta Department of Planning Comprehensive Development Plan Update.
16ONLINE Survey Prioritizing planning topics Open-ended questions such as:What do you like about your community?What do you want the City of Atlanta to be like in 20 years?What is/are your favorite part(s) of the City of Atlanta and why?What do you NOT like about your community?Need to include information on the survey – how many submitted responses?Do the results include the online survey and the workshop results?
17Survey Results What do you like about your community? What do you want the City of Atlanta to be like in 20 years?What is/are your favorite part(s)of the City of Atlanta and why?Proximity to amenities190Walkability208Parks, greenspace and recreation105160191Amenities104Proximity to work142Public transit155Midtown100Tree canopy137Safety115Piedmont Park7797Vibrant urban city10971Community70Abundance of jobs74Arts, Culture & Entertainment63Location51Preserved neighborhoodsVirginia Highland5740Bike access39Downtown Atlanta46Mixed UseEducation38Buckhead44History/historic30Transportation36Inman Park41
18What do you NOT like about Survey ResultsWhat do you NOT like aboutyour community?Safety143Lack of code enforcement109Lack of public transit89Vacant properties88Amenities70Traffic67Transportation57Lack of walkability50Not clean47Streets38
20SEC Indicators Education Income Poverty Employment College Degree AttainmentMedian Household IncomePovertyEmployment% Living in PovertyUnemployment RatePhoto sources: Wiki Commons, Mlive.com, saveafewbucks.com,
21EDUCATIONData Source: U.S. Census Bureau. ( 2010). Educational Attainment. Retrieved from
22PovertyData Source: U.S. Census Bureau. ( 2010) American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates: Selected Economic Characteristics. Retrieved from
23Household IncomeData Source: U.S. Census Bureau. ( 2010) American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates: Selected Economic Characteristics. Retrieved from
24UNEMPLOYMENTData Source: U.S. Census Bureau. ( 2010) American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates: Selected Economic Characteristics. Retrieved from
25SEC INDEx Grouped by standard deviations: 8 high, 6 medium, 11 lowStandard deviation is a measure of the distance the data is from the mean. A z-score tells you how many standard deviations you are from the mean.Grouped by standard deviations:Low < -0.5 σ Medium ≥ -0.5 σ, ≤ 0.5 σ High > 0.5 σSource: Calculated by authors.
27Quality of LifeWhat is Quality of Life (QoL)? How can it be measured? Of what use is it to planning?Three key questions
28Defining QoLInformed by both objective measurements and resident perceptionsVaries over time and spaceInherent linkage to placeViable planning tool, since planning aims to further community development and wellbeingResults can serve to inform targeted policy recommendationsObjective and subjectiveIndicator measurement to track longitudinal trendsplace-based analysis to measure community conditions and inform policy
29Indicator Selection Indicators… Should be valid at the neighborhood levelShould be associated with placeShould capture attributes of importance to residents
30nQol Indicators Indicators Measures Amenities Greenspace access Retail MixEconomyEmployment to labor force ratioHousingHome AffordabilityRent AffordabilityVacancy ratesPublic SafetyViolent crime ratesProperty crime ratesTraffic-related accidentsTransportationMean travel times to workTransit access
31Atlanta Neighborhood Quality of Life Index Results
32Amenities: Park & Recreation Access Park and recreation access calculated with ¼ mile buffers and census blocks.Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau. ( 2010). Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile. Data Retrieved from
33Amenities: Park & Recreation Access Equitable spread of greenspace for M, N, F
34Amenities: Retail Mix 3-digit NAICS Code Description Examples 445 Food and Beverage StoresKroger, Yogli Mogli446Health and Personal Care StoresRite Aid, GNC448Clothing and Accessories StoresOld Navy, Footlocker452General Merchandise StoresSam’s Club, Dollar Tree453Miscellaneous Store RetailersOffice Depot, GoodwillReference USA. ( 2012). U.S. Businesses. Data retrieved from
35AMENITIES Ranking Amenities Ranking NPU 1B2M3N4T5F6V7O8E9W10K11S12J13C14Y15X16Z17I18R19G20L21D22A23H24P25QAMENITIES RankingBe prepared to explain how we computed the rankingsSource: Calculated by authors.
36HOUSING: VacancyData Source: U.S. Census Bureau. ( 2010). Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile. Data Retrieved from
37Housing: rent Affordability Rent as a share of income for average residentmedian household in 2010 $45,171Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau. ( 2010). Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile. Data Retrieved from
38HOUSING: Home Affordability Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau. ( 2010). Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile. Data Retrieved from
39Housing ranking Housing Ranking NPU 1Q2W3P4O5N6D7C8I9G10F11H12A13X14S15R16B17Z18Y19K20J21V22E23T24M25LHousing rankingVacancy and affordability diff results - > edge NPUsSource: Calculated by authors.
40ECONOMY: Jobs to Labor Force Ratio Jobs by location compared to # of residents in labor forceU.S. Census Bureau. ( 2010) American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates: Selected Economic Characteristics. Retrieved fromU.S. Census Bureau, Center for Economic . ( 2010). Work Area Profile Analysis: 2010 Primary Jobs. Retrieved from
41ECONOMY Economy ranking Economy Ranking NPU 1 M 2 B 3 E 4 A 5 D 6 Z 7 L8G9X10C11V12F13T14W15Y16K17O18R19I20S21N22P23J24H25QEconomy rankingECONOMYSource: Calculated by authors.
42PUBLIC SAFETY: Property Crimes arson, burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theftData Source: Atlanta Police Department
43Public safety: violent crimes Aggravated assault, forcible rape, murder, and robberyData Source: Atlanta Police Department
45PUBLIC SAFETY: Vehicle Crash Injuries/Fatalities Data Source: Georgia Department of Transportation ( 2012). Vehicle Crashes.
46PUBLIC SAFETY ranking Public Safety NPU Ranking 1 Q 2 A 3 C 4 P 5 F 6 7B8O9D10I11H12S13W14E15Z16K17G18T19J20R21X22Y23L24V25MSource: Calculated by authors.
47TRANSPORTATION: Calculating Transit Access ¼ mile bus stop buffers & ½ mile rail station buffersPopulation access determined by area weighted census blocksData Source: U.S. Census Bureau. ( 2010). ) American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates: Selected Economic Characteristics. Data Retrieved fromU.S. Census Bureau. ( 2010). Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile. Data Retrieved from
48Transportation: Transit Access 79% of Atlanta overall has good access to transit – good measured by ¼ - ½ mile buffers. …
49TRANSPORTATION: Mean Travel Times see longer travel times in south, shorter in north for two possible reasons:More jobs in north, and more private vehicle ownershipData Source: U.S. Census Bureau. ( 2010). ) American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates: Selected Economic Characteristics. Data Retrieved from
50Transportation Ranking NPU1E2M3F4B5C6O7D8T9R10S11Y12L13N14W15V16G17K18H19Z20I21P22X23A24J25QTRANSPORTATION RANKINGSource: Calculated by authors.
51NQOL Resident Priorities* AttributeCity Resident RankingIndicator ClassificationWeightingPolice Services4.3Public Safety25%Fire Services4.2Public safetyEconomic DevelopmentEconomy22%Transportation4.120%Parks, Greenspace and Recreation4.0Amenities18%Land UseHousing3.715%Land use = proxy for access to activity centers* Based on City of Atlanta 2011 CDP Survey Results
52Neighborhood Quality of Life Index Ranking High SECNQoL RankingNPU1B2F3E4C5D6N7A8QMedium SECNQoL RankingNPU1M2O3W4I5P6RLow SECNQoL RankingNPU1T2S3G4Z5X6V7Y8K9L10H11JSource: Calculated by authors.
54County Health Rankings In developing a health index for Atlanta, we surveyed other indexes and ranking systems to determine what variables are often used. One approach that has validated measures and national influence is the county health rankings.County health rankings follows a three part approach in their calculationsHealth outcomes : mortality that is best understood as one’s length of life morbidity, the quality of one’s life.Health factors: health behaviors, (tobacco use, diet and exercise, alcohol use, sexual activity), clinical care (access to care and quality of care), social and economic factors (education, employment, income, family and social support and community safety), and physical environment (environmental quality, built environment)54
55County Health Rankings MortalityPremature Death, Years of Potential Life Lost 75 (YPLL75)MorbidityHRQLBirth Outcomes (Low Birth Weight, LBW)55
56County Health Rankings Health BehaviorsTobacco Use (BRFSS)Diet & Exercise (BMI and leisure time physical activity, NCCDPHP)Alcohol use (BRFSS)Sexual activity (Teen Birth Rates and STDs, NCHS and CDC)56
57County Health Rankings Clinical CareAccess to care, under 65 w/out insurance and # people/PCP (HRSA)Quality of care, preventive hospitalizations, diabetic screening, Mammography screening (Dartmouth Atlas)57
58County Health Rankings Social and economic factors% 9th grade cohort w/ 4 year graduationAverage annual unemployment rateChildren in poverty% adults w/o social/emotional support (BRFSS)Single parent HHViolent Crimes (FBI)58
59County Health Rankings Physical EnvironmentUnhealthy AQ daysLimited Access to healthy foodsFast food restaurantsAccess to recreational facilities59
61HEALTH Indicators Indicators Measures Nutrition % With Good Food AccessPhysical ActivityWalkabilityMorbidityDiabetesHypertensive Heart DiseaseEsophageal, Renal & Uterine CancersMortalityYPLL 75 Rate
62Nutrition: Food Access Food destinations:SupermarketsFood markets and grocery storesFarmers marketsProximity: determined by average nearest distance from populations to food retail destinations.Socioeconomic factors:Poverty status
63Distance From Populations to Nearest Food Destinations Using the Near toolCalculates distance from each block group centroid to nearest food destinationU.S. Census Bureau. ( 2010). Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile. Data Retrieved fromReference USA. ( 2012). U.S. Businesses. Data retrieved from
64Proximity 325 block groups in the city of Atlanta 262 food destinationsthe range of access is 168 ft - 16,051 ftThe average nearest distance to a food market is 2357 feet or .45 mile.U.S. Census Bureau. ( 2010). Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile. Data Retrieved fromReference USA. ( 2012). U.S. Businesses. Data retrieved from
65Nutrition: Good Food Access Source: Calculated by authors.
66Physical activity: walkability Derived from averaging walkscores for neighborhoods within NPUsData Source: Walk Score. (2012). Atlanta Neighborhoods. Data retrieved from
67Morbidity: DiabetesData Source: Georgia Department of Public Health.
68Morbidity: Hypertensive Heart Disease Data Source: Georgia Department of Public Health.
69Morbidity: Esophageal, Uterine & Renal Cancers Data Source: Georgia Department of Public Health.
70MORTALITY: YPLL 75 rateData Source: Georgia Department of Public Health.
71Neighborhood Health Index ranking High SECNH RankingNPU1F2N3B4A5E6C7D8QMedium SECNH RankingNPU1M2O3W4P5I6RLow SECNH RankingNPU1T2V3K4Y5L6S7X8J9H10Z11GSource: Calculated by authors.
73Objective Vs. Subjective Convergence of negative perceptions and conditionsTransit Access - NPUs in north Atlanta (A, B, E, F)Housing - NPUs J, L, VCrime – NPUs L, M, V, YConvergence of positive perceptions and conditionsParks, Recreation & Greenspace – NPUs C, VProximity to work and short travel times – NPU E (Midtown area)Walkability – NPUs F, N
74Comparisons between QoL & health Overlap matrixNPUs with high NH & NQoLSECHigh QoLHigh HealthOverlapHighB, F, EF, N, BF, BMedM,O, WM, O, WLowT, S, GT, V, KTSource: authors.
75Attributes of npu f Walkability Amenities Nutrition Transportation Virginia Highland walkers & bikers; retail in virginia highland; morningside farmers marketNeighborhoods in NPU F: Atkins Park, Lindridge/Martin Manor, Morningside/Lenox Park, Piedmont Heights, Virginia HighlandNutritionTransportationPublic SafetyImage sources:
76Comparisons between QoL & health Overlap matrixNPUs with high NH & NQoLSECHigh QoLHigh HealthOverlapHighB, F, EF, N, BF, BMedM,O, WM, O, WLowT, S, GT, V, KTSource: authors.
77Attribute overlap: NPU M TransportationWalkabilityFive points marta; broad street; retail in castleberry hill; Tcwf job fairNeighborhoods in NPU M: Castleberry Hill, Downtown, Old Fourth Ward, Sweet AuburnAmenitiesEconomyImage sources:
78Comparisons between QoL & health Overlap matrixNPUs with high NH & NQoLSECHigh QoLHigh HealthOverlapHighB, F, EF, N, BF, BMedM,O, WM, O, WLowT, S, GT, V, KTSource: authors.
79Attribute overlap: NPU T AmenitiesNutritionWest end retail and farmer’s marketNPU T: Ashview Heights, Atlanta University Center, Harris Chiles, Just Us, The Villages at Castleberry Hill, West End, WestviewImage sources:
80Planning implications and applications Do these results align with citizen priorities and feedback?Applications for policy and resource allocation decisionsNPUs with high NH & NQoLUnderinvestment in the west side neighborhoods