Presentation on theme: "Archetype Unit. What is an Archetype? The word is derived from the Greek: arche, original, and typos, form or model; thus, original model. Archetypes."— Presentation transcript:
What is an Archetype? The word is derived from the Greek: arche, original, and typos, form or model; thus, original model. Archetypes = Original Model A key to understanding folk literature is to understand archetypes. They are what provides us a connection to all cultures and all stories.
Characteristics of Archetypes They are not individual, but the part we share with all humanity They are the inherited part of being human which connects us to our past beyond our personal experience They are not directly knowable, but instead express themselves in forms Situations, Symbols, and Characters They grow out of man’s social, psychological, and biological being
Characteristics of Archetypes They are universal – From the Roman gladiator to the astronaut, they remain the same They are recurrent, appearing in slightly altered forms to take present day situations and relate them to the past in order to find meaning in a contemporary world
The Quest The search for someone or some talisman which, when found and brought back, will restore fertility to a wasted land (consciously or unconsciously) In Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone, Harry must find the Sorcerer’s Stone before Voldemort can use it to come back to life. In Finding Nemo, Marlin must find his missing son and return him home.
The Task To save the kingdom, to win the fair lady, to identify himself so that he may resume his rightful position, the hero must perform some nearly superhuman deed. Harry must complete several tasks to get to the Sorcerer’s Stone Enchanted Wizard’s Chess In Finding Nemo, Marlin must face a presumably deadly shark on his path of finding his son.
The Initiation This usually takes the form of an initiation into adult life. The adolescent comes into maturity with new awareness and problems along with new hope for the community. – Harry is initiated into the Wizarding World at Hogwarts. – Nemo is initiated into the fish tank crew, as Sharkbait.
The Call to Adventure and Refusal of the Call The first occurrence in a chain of events where the hero receives a call Either from within or via a messenger Animal, hermit, spirit, human Causes the journey to begin Usually the hero, not recognizing the hand of fate at work, will attempt to back out of these life-changing adventures Harry is prevented from accepting his “call to adventure” by his aunt and uncle Marlin is hesitant to leave the shelter of his home to find his son
The Journey Sends the hero in search of some truth or information necessary to restore fertility to the kingdom. Usually the hero descends into a real or psychological hell and is forced to discover the blackest truths, quite often concerning his own faults.
The Journey Once the hero is at his lowest point, he must accept personal responsibility to return to the world of the living. In “The Chamber of Secrets,” Harry must go into the chamber to realize that although he is similar to Voldemort, he follows the side of good. In Finding Nemo, Marlin must choose wether to give up on finding his son or to continue searching.
Journey Variation A group finds themselves together on a voyage or in an isolated situation Each member of the group will represent a level of society As a microcosm of society, the group will descend into a real or psychological hell to discover the blackest truths concerning a society or culture Ron and Hermione help Harry with his tasks to find the sorcerer’s stone. Dory assists Marlin in finding his son.
The Fall Fall (from innocence) and out of paradise. This archetype describes a descent from a higher to a lower state of being. The experience involves a defilement and/or loss of innocence and bliss. The fall is often accompanied by expulsion from a kind of paradise as penalty for disobedience and moral transgression.
The Fall The fall is often accompanied by expulsion from a kind of paradise as penalty for disobedience and moral transgression. – In “The Order of the Phoenix, Harry goes to the Ministry of Magic to rescue his godfather Sirius Black. In doing so he jeopardizes the safety of his friends and ultimately causes Sirius’s death. Marlin decides to leave Dory behind.
Death and Rebirth The most common of all situational archetypes, this motif grows out of the parallel between the cycle of nature and cycle of life. Thus, morning and springtime represent birth, youth, or rebirth; evening and winter suggest old age and death. Cycle of Life – Fawkes the Phoenix represents Death and Rebirth because he is reborn out of the ashes – Fish are flushed down the toilet in Finding Nemo, so that they can go to fish heaven.
Nature Versus a Mechanistic World Nature is good while technology and society are often evil – Harry is connected to nature and creatures of nature throughout the series – Nemo struggles to break the fan in the tank so he can escape. (Sea = good, dentist office = bad)
Battle Between Good and Evil The battle between two primal forces. Mankind shows eternal optimism in the continual portrayal of good triumphing over evil despite great odds where the future or very existence of the kingdom is often at stake – In “The Goblet of Fire,” Harry must battle the newly regenerated Voldemort
Unhealable Wound This wound is either physical or psychological and cannot be fully healed. This wound also indicates the loss of innocence. These wounds always ache and often drive the sufferer to desperate measures
Ritual The actual ceremonies the initiate experiences that will mark his rite of passage into another state. – The Sorting of First Year Students into houses is an example of a ritual. – Harry is sorted into Gryffindor House. – Marlin finally letting Nemo outside of the house to play with friends.
The Magic Weapon The weapon symbolizes the extraordinary quality of the hero because no one else can wield the weapon or use it to its full potential. It is usually given by a mentor figure – Harry’s wand is the twin of Voldemort’s.
Light Versus Darkness Light usually suggests hope, renewal, or intellectual illumination; darkness implies the unknown, ignorance, or despair. The theme of the struggle between light and dark frequently symbolizes the struggle between good and evil
Water Versus Desert Water commonly appears as a birth or rebirth symbol. Water, which solemnizes spiritual births, is used in baptismal services. Similarly, the appearance of rain in a work of literature can suggest a character’s spiritual birth.
Water Versus Desert A desert is seen as the opposite or a place of exile. Often the desert is represented by an absence of the expected: lack of wind or waves on the ocean, lack of rain when there is usually rain, absence of game to hunt in the wilderness
Heaven Versus Hell The skies and the mountain tops house gods – Hogwarts, Heaven The bowels of the earth contain the diabolic forces that inhabit his universe. – Chamber of Secrets, Hell
Innate Wisdom Versus Educated Stupidity Some characters exhibit wisdom and understanding of situations instinctively as opposed to those supposedly in charge Instinctive wisdom versus book- learned ignorance is emphasized – Ron has the wizarding street smarts that Harry lacks. – Hermione’s innate ability at spell work helps Harry numerous times Dory is not very smart The turtle seemingly uneducated teaches Marlin to be fearless.
Innate Wisdom Versus Educated Stupidity Loyal retainers often exhibit this wisdom as they accompany their “educated” masters on journeys
Haven Versus Wilderness Places of safety contrast sharply against the dangerous wilderness. Heroes are often sheltered for a time to retain health and resources – The Burrow is a haven for Harry and the Weasleys – The reef is a haven for Marlin and Nemo, anything beyond that is unknown.
Supernatural Intervention The gods intervene of the behalf of the hero or provide obstacles sometimes against him or her. The literary term is deus ex machina In “The Chamber of Secrets,” Harry’ is helped by Fawkes who brings him the Sorting Hat from which he pulls Godric Griffyndor’s sword.
Fire Versus Ice Fire represents knowledge, light, life, rebirth Fire represents knowledge, light, life, rebirth Ice, like the desert, represents ignorance, darkness, sterility, death Ice, like the desert, represents ignorance, darkness, sterility, death
Threshold Gateway to a new world which the hero must enter to change and grow Platform 9 ¾ is the threshold to Hogwarts The toilet, leads Nemo to the ocean to find his dad
The Underworld A place of death or metaphorically an encounter with the dark side of the self Entering an underworld is a form of facing a fear of death – The Chamber of Secrets is an Underworld
The Crossroads A place or time of decision when a realization is made and change or penance results – Harry decides to leave Hogwarts to search for the Horcruxes to defeat Voldemort
The Maze A puzzling dilemma or great uncertainty, search for the dangerous monster inside of oneself, or a journey into the heart of darkness – The Department of Mysteries in the Ministry of Magic is a Maze. – The sea in Finding Nemo
The Castle A strong place of safety which holds treasure or princess May be enchanted or bewitched – Hogwarts
The Tower A strong place of evil Represents the isolation of self – Azkaban Prison
The Whirlpool Symbolizes the destructive power of nature or fate – In “The Half-Blood Prince,” the lake with the Inferi represents a whirlpool
The Hero Mother is a virgin or at least pure of heart and spirit Sometimes the hero is the child of distinguished parents (royalty) – Harry’s parents were a part of the Order of the Phoenix
The Hero An attempt is made to kill the pregnant mother or kill the child at an early age usually through a curse or prophecy – Voldemort tries to kill Harry as an infant due to a prophecy
The Hero To save the child, he/she is spirited away and reared by foster parents usually in humble circumstances – Frequently in a wilderness or wasteland – Harry is raised by his aunt and uncle in a suburb of London away from the Wizarding World. – Nemo has no mother
The Hero Very little is known of his/her childhood Upon reaching adulthood, he/she returns to his/her future kingdom – Harry must find out about his parents from Hagrid
The Hero Male, after proving himself (usually by defeating a wild beast), marries a princess, becomes king, knight, or warrior of the realm or village – Harry defeats many different creatures and does battle with Voldemort several times
The Hero Hero later loses favor with the gods and is then driven from the city (outcast) after which he/she meets a mysterious death – Often at the top of a hill Body is not buried – ?????
Young One From the Provinces The hero/heroine is spirited away and raised by strangers in humble surroundings in a wilderness or wasteland setting Later returns to his/her home as a stranger with new solutions to the kingdom’s problems
The Initiate The hero/heroine who, prior to their quest, must endure some training and ceremony They are usually innocent, untested, and often wear white – Harry must learn the ways of the wizarding world at Hogwarts – Nemo must fit in with the tank gang
Mentor—Pupil Relationship Mentors serve as teachers or counselors to initiates The mentor acts as a role model for the protagonist and can function as father or mother figures as well The mentor teaches by example the skills necessary to survive the quest/task/journey – Harry’s primary mentor is Dumbledore – Gil becomes Nemo’s mentor
Parent—Child Conflict Tension often results from separation during childhood or from an external source when the individuals meet as men and where the mentor often has a higher place in the affections of the hero than that of the natural parent – Harry does not know his parents as they died when he was a baby – Nemo is mad at his father for never allowing him to leave the reef
Loyal Retainers These retainers are somewhat like servants and are heroic themselves Often called side-kicks, their duty is to protect the hero/heroine and reflect his/her nobility – Ron Weasley and Hermione Granger are Harry’s loyal retainers – Dory is Marlin’s loyal retainer
Hunting Group of Companions This is a band of loyal companions willing to face any number of perils in order to be together or to achieve a common goal Harry has many HGOCs throughout the seven book series. – Dumbledore’s Army (DA) is one of them – Tank Gang helps Nemo to get out of the tank
Friendly Beast These creatures aid or serve the hero/heroine Symbolize how nature is on the side of the hero/heroine – Harry’s owl Hedwig is a friendly beast
Devil Figure This character is evil incarnate who offers worldly goods, fame, or knowledge to the protagonist in exchange for possession of the soul – Voldemort – Darla
Devil Figure with the Ultimately Good Heart A redeemable evil character saved by the nobility or love of the hero/heroine – Severus Snape fits this category as he saves Harry several times in the series
The Outcast A figure who is banished from a social group for some crime (real or imagined) against his fellow man The outcast is usually destined to become a wanderer from place to place – Sirius Black is an outcast because everyone thinks he was the cause of the James and Lily Potter’s death.
Creature of Nightmare A monster usually summoned from the deepest, darkest part of the human psyche to threaten the life of the hero/heroine. Often it is a perversion of the human body – The Goblins can be considered CONs
Threshold Guardian Tests the hero’s courage and worthiness to begin the journey – Hagrid is Harry’s Threshold Guardian – Crush is Marlin’s Threshold Guardian
Platonic Ideal This woman is a source of inspiration and a spiritual ideal The protagonist has an intellectual rather than a physical attraction to her – Hermione is Harry’s platonic ideal
Earth Mother Symbolic of fruition, abundance, and fertility, this character traditionally offers spiritual and emotional nourishment to those with whom she comes in contact. She is depicted in earth colors, having large breasts and hips symbolic of her childbearing capabilities Mrs. Weasley is the Earth Mother in the Harry Potter Series
Temptress Characterized by sensuous beauty, this woman brings about the downfall of the hero by tempting him to turn away from his goal – Cho Chang causes Harry to lose his focus with DA
Unfaithful Wife A married woman who finds her husband dull or unattractive and seeks a more virile or interesting man. Archtypally, the woman is the center of the family and is responsible for keeping it together. – Bellatrix Lestrange could be considered an unfaithful wife as she is more devoted to Voldemort than her own husband
Damsel in Distress This vulnerable woman must be rescued by the hero She is often a trap set by the devil figure or temptress to ensnare the unsuspecting hero – Ginny Weasley is a damsel in distress in “The Chamber of Secrets” – Dory gets stung by jellyfish
Star-Crossed Lovers These two characters are engaged in a love affair that is fated to end tragically for one or both due to the disapproval of the society, friends, family or some tragic situation
Star-Crossed Lovers Other times it is a situation which separates the lovers, such as war, their respective positions in society, where they live, or untimely death – Ginny and Harry become SCL in books 6 and 7 – Unlike most SCL, they do have a happy ending