Presentation on theme: "Music of the Balkans: Bosnia and Bulgaria. Historical Overview Bosnia was republic of Yugoslavia from 1945-1991. Declared independence: 1992. Ethnic groups:"— Presentation transcript:
Historical Overview Bosnia was republic of Yugoslavia from 1945-1991. Declared independence: 1992. Ethnic groups: Serbs, Croats, Bosniaks Religions include Orthodox Christianity (9 th cent.), Catholicism, Judaism, Islam (under Ottoman Empire:1463-1878). Region marked by ethnic violence. Sarajevo=capital city of Bosnia- Herzegovina.
Music of the Highlanders Songs tend to be polyphonic, vocal. Songs used in local rite of passage festivals, with dance. Girls sing with their own “singing groups” (only unmarried women sing).
Ganga Vocal genre of highland villagers, sung in male and female singing groups. Alternation of solo (leader) and group. Short phrases, emphasis on dissonance. Narrow vocal range. Aesthetic goal: contribute accompanying pattern through close dissonance described as “cutting”, “chopping”, or “sobbing.” Topics are gender-specific.
“Newly Composed Folk Music” Songs composed in the style of folk songs. Regulated by and used to further the political aims of the state. Style usually excludes rural aesthetics in favor of urban/Western standards. Is NOT folk music, but a completely different genre. Emerged 1960s-1980s in Yugoslavia, provided basis for young urban musicians looking for “national” style.
Tamburitza Orchestra Played by professionals. Instrumentation is “folk orchestra” made up of folk string instruments. Promoted by state-managed cultural system in Yugoslavia. Performed rural genres as well as newly composed folk songs. CD 2/13 (lowlands wedding song)
Overview Demographics: most are ethnic Bulgarians. Turks and Rom (Gypsies) are minorities. Language: Bulgarian (Slavic language) Religions: Most are Eastern Orthodox Under Ottoman Empire for 5 centuries Like Yugoslavia, was under communist regime from 1940s to late 1980s
Women’s Village Music Women’s singing: –in western regions: antiphonal (2 choirs, alternating) and diaphonic (part singing, with an active part over a drone). Often end with aspiration or “yelp.” –Like in Bosnia, women tend to sing for courtship and rites of passages, as well as work. –Aesthetic goals of group singing similar to ganga: here, “to ring like a bell”
State-Sponsored Folk Music: “The Mystery of the Bulgarian Voice” 1950s: Filip Kutev, composer, director of National Ensemble of Folk Song and Dance Presented “modernized” folk songs 1987: “world music” becomes marketing term. French label releases “Le Mystere des Voix Bulgares.”
Ivo Papasov Clarinetist, of Turkish and Rom heritage Founded group Trakiya in 1974 Created new form of popular music based on traditional wedding music (“Balkan jazz”) Style includes use of compound dance meters, improvisation, scales and ornamentation from folk music Incorporation of drum set and electric instruments, as well as “polished” sound
“Hristianova Kopanitsa” 2+2+3+2+2 Begins with folk tune Followed by improvised solos