2Leviticus The book of liturgical services: Levi: priestly tribe Leviticus: Book of worship and liturgical workKey word: HOLINESS – used 87 timesKey verse: “You shall be holy, for I the Lord your God [am] holy.” (Lev 19:2)Sacrifice is the basis for approaching GodPriesthood is the means to approaching Him
3The OfferingsSweet-savor offerings demonstrate that Christ was acceptable to GodBurnt – Christ the Perfect SacrificeGrain – Christ the Perfect PersonPeace – Christ the EucharistNon-sweet-savor offerings demonstrate that the sinner is unacceptableSinTrespass
4Sin & Trespass Offerings Sin OfferingTrespass OfferingIntentional, active sinsSins out of ignorance or negligence directed towards the sinner himselfTo remove God’s wrathUnintentional, passive sinsSins out of ignorance or negligence directed towards God or othersFor comfort of the consciencesRestitution required
5Sin Offering To be offered for: Sins of ignorance of the commandments of the LORD (Lev 4)The consecration of priests (Exo 29)The consecration of Levites (Num 8)The expiration of a Nazarite's vow (Num 6)Cleansing of a leper (Lev 14)Purification of women (Lev 12)Purification of those with issues (Lev 15)The day of atonement (Lev 16)
6Trespass Offering To be offered for: Concealing knowledge of a crime (Lev 5)Involuntarily touching unclean things (Lev 5)Rash swearing (Lev 5)Sins of ignorance in holy things (Lev 5)Any sin of ignorance of the commandments of the LORD (Lev 5)Breach of trust, or fraud (Lev 6)Purification of Nazarites who had broken their vow (Num 6)Connection with a betrothed bondmaid (Lev 19)
7Sin Offering (Lev 4:1-12) – Christ the crucified, bearer of our sins “who Himself bore our sins in His own body on the tree, that we, having died to sins, might live for righteousness—by whose stripes you were healed.” (1Pet 2:24)Not a “sweet-savor” offeringDifferent sacrifices – according to the status of the sinner, and according to the financial situationSins of the offerer transferred by imposition of hands
8Sin Offering High Priest – offers a young bull (Lev 4:3) All the fat is removed and burned on the AltarAll the skin and meat is burned outside of the campSin has no place is God’s presenceChrist was crucified outside of the Holy City“For the bodies of those animals, whose blood is brought into the sanctuary by the high priest for sin, are burned outside the camp. Therefore Jesus also, that He might sanctify the people with His own blood, suffered outside the gate. Therefore let us go forth to Him, outside the camp, bearing His reproach.” (Heb 13:13)
9Sin OfferingThe entire sacrifice is burned, as sin destroys the entire being of man:“…The whole head is sick, And the whole heart faints. From the sole of the foot even to the head, There is no soundness in it, But wounds and bruises and putrefying sores; They have not been closed or bound up, Or soothed with ointment.” (Isa 1:5-6)The skin resembles the outer appearance and prideThe head – sinful thoughtsLimbs – feet that sought after sin and hands that committed sinEntrails – The hidden inner desiresBlood is sprinkled seven times towards the veilVeil – sin that separated us from GodSeven – perfect numberIt is the perfect redemption from sinThe veil was torn into two, when Christ – True Sacrifice – died
10Sin OfferingThe Entire Congregation – offers a young bull same as the High Priest (Lev 4:13- 14)The sin of the High Priest is equal to the sin of the entire congregationIn the Liturgy, the priest prays, “Grant O Lord that this sacrifice be acceptable on behalf of my sins and the ignorance of your people”The sacrifice is offered according to the same rites as for the priest, after the elders of the congregation place their hands on the head and confess the sins
11Sin Offering A ruler – offers a kid of the goats (Lev 4:22-23) The priest does not enter into the Holy with the blood, but rather puts it on the horns of the Altar of Sacrifices and pours the rest at the baseBlood poured – Christ’s blood being shed on the Cross
12Sin Offering A common person – offers a female lamb (Lev 4:32) Same rite as the rulerIf he can’t afford a lamb, he may present a kid of the goatsIf he is poor, he may bring “two turtledoves or two young pigeons: one as a sin offering and the other as a burnt offering“ (Lev 5:7)
13Sin Offering It was a “most holy” sacrifice “Also the LORD spoke to Moses, saying, "Speak to Aaron and to his sons, saying, "This is the law of the sin offering: In the place where the burnt offering is killed, the sin offering shall be killed before the LORD. It is most holy...” (Lev 6:24-29)“For if the blood of bulls and goats and the ashes of a heifer, sprinkling the unclean, sanctifies for the purifying of the flesh, how much more shall the blood of Christ” (Heb 9:13-14)
14Sin OfferingWith some exceptions, the priest eats of the sin and trespass offerings“Every male among the priests may eat it. It shall be eaten in a holy place. It is most holy. The trespass offering is like the sin offering; there is one law for them both: the priest who makes atonement with it shall have it.” (Lev 7:6-7)The offerer does not eat of itHe has no role in salvation; salvation is free - by graceThe priest eat from it, as he is the representative and the servant of the work of Salvation
15Trespass Offering(Lev 5:1-6; 6:1-5) – Christ the crucified, bearer of our trespasses“But He was wounded for our transgressions, He was bruised for our iniquities… Yet it pleased the LORD to bruise Him; He has put Him to grief. When You make His soul an offering for sin…” (Isa 53)Not a “sweet-savor” offeringPreceded by confessionAccompanied by restitutionOne-fifth of what was harmed (Lev 6:1-5)
16The OfferingsSweet-savor offerings demonstrate that Christ was acceptable to GodBurnt – Christ the Perfect SacrificeGrain – Christ the Perfect PersonPeace – Christ the EucharistNon-sweet-savor offerings demonstrate that the sinner is unacceptableSin, TrespassChrist the crucified, bearer of our sins and trespasses
17Imperfect Sacrifices Certain sins are not redeemable with sacrifices Murder - The sinner would be put to deathThe Sacrifices were insufficient for complete redemptionThe Sacrifice of Christ, however, is completeIf we do not see the value of this Sacrifice, we are inexcusable:“For if we sin willfully after we have received the knowledge of the truth, there no longer remains a sacrifice for sins, but a certain fearful expectation of judgment, and fiery indignation which will devour the adversaries. Anyone who has rejected Moses' law dies without mercy on the testimony of two or three witnesses. Of how much worse punishment, do you suppose, will he be thought worthy who has trampled the Son of God underfoot, counted the blood of the covenant by which he was sanctified a common thing, and insulted the Spirit of grace? For we know Him who said, "Vengeance is Mine, I will repay," says the Lord. And again, "The LORD will judge His people. "It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God.” (Heb 10:26-31)
18The Great Day of Atonement Yom Kippur - "Day of Atonement"(Lev 16:1-28)The greatest day of SacrificesTo atone for allThe Sacrifices of that dayThe Daily Burnt OfferingsThe Sacrifices of the Feast:Ram as a burnt offering, for the priestBull and seven lambs as a burnt offering for the peopleRam as a sin offering, for the peopleThe Sacrifices of the Atonement:Bull as a sin offering, for the high priest, his household and the sons of AaronTwo goats as a sin offering, for the people
19The Great Day of Atonement - Rites In the early morning the high priest – performed the daily morning sacrifices (Exo 28)Washed his whole body in the laver, then his hands and feetPut on his robes of servicePerforms the ordinary morning rite of dressing the lampsOffered incense.Offered the daily morning sacrifice which is doubled because it is a Sabbath“And on the Sabbath day two lambs in their first year, without blemish, and two-tenths of an ephah of fine flour as a grain offering, mixed with oil, with its drink offering” (Num 28:9-10)
20The Great Day of Atonement - Rites The sacrifice of atonement - a bull and two goats (Num 29:7)He removed the festive robes, and left them in the HolyHe washed again in the LaverHe put on special vestments of linen (Lev 16: 4).With his hands placed on the head of a bull (purchased from his own means), he made confession of his own sins and of those of his household (Lev 16: 6).The two goats contributed by the people (Lev 16: 5) were placed before him, being designated by lot:one for a sin offering "for the Lord,"the other to be sent away into the wilderness "for Azazel" (verses 7-10).Once more the high priest made confession over his own bull, for himself and his wider household—his brother priests (verse 11a).
22The Great Day of Atonement - Rites After killing the animal (verse 11b) he received its blood into a vesselHe took a censer full of live coals from the altar of burnt offering (Ex. 27: 1-8) and two handfuls of fine incense into the Holy of Holies;He placed the incense on the coals, the cloud of incense enveloping the Mercy-seat (verse 12),He offered a short prayer, and left the censor and incense
23The Great Day of Atonement - Rites He returned for the vessel containing the blood of the bull and reentered, sprinkling some of it with his finger seven times on the mercy seat (verse 14; Ex. 25: 13-15).He then sacrifices the people's goat (marked "for the Lord")With its blood he reentered the Holy of Holies, there to perform the same number of sprinklings in the same place (verse 15).
25The Great Day of Atonement - Rites By these rites the most holy place was purified (v 16; Num 19: 13).By sprinkling the bull's blood and the goat against the vile, the entrance to the Holy of Holies was purified (verse 16b).No one was permitted to remain in the sanctuary while the high priest officiated in the Holy of Holies (verse 17).The high priest then mixed the blood of the bull and goat, and put some of it on the four corners of the altar of incense (Ex 30: 1-10);He sprinkled some of it with his finger seven times on the surface of the altar, cleaned of its coal and ashes (verse 18), while the remainder was poured out at the base of the altar outside (Lev. 4: 7).The bull and goat were burned outside the camp, and the priests who burned them, along with the priest who lead the scapegoat did not re-enter the camp until they washed their bodies and cloths – they need to be purified of the sins that theses sacrifices represent.
26The Great Day of Atonement - Rites The live goat was now brought forward before the Lord – to be judged as a representative of the people.The high priest laid his hand upon its head and confessed all the iniquities of the Israelites, and all their transgressions, which were thus placed upon the goat's head.Laden with the people's sins, the animal was sent away into the wilderness (verses 20-22).
27Two Goats - One Sacrifice First goat - “For the Lord”Second – “For Azazel”Atonement and forgiveness of sinBlood is the only means of atonementDeath of Christ“For the Lord” – AcceptableRemains in the sanctuaryCasting the sins awayEffectiveness of atonementResurrection of Christ“For Azazel” (Satan) – rejected and cast awayCast out to barren land - wilderness
28The Great Day of Atonement - Rites The Additional sacrifices of the feast – (Num 29:7-11)One young bull, one ram, and seven lambs in their first year without blemishGrain offering: fine flour mixed with oil: three-tenths of an ephah for the bull, two-tenths for the one ram, and one-tenth for each of the seven lambs;One kid of the goats as a sin offeringHe washed again in the LaverHe removed the linen robes, and put on the festive robesThe daily evening sacrifice was offered (Num. 29: 11; Ex. 29: 41).The sacred vestments were then left in the sanctuary.In his ordinary robes, the high priest closed the service with the evening rite of lighting the lamps, which was accompanied by an offering of incense (Ex. 30: 8).
29The Great Day of Atonement - Explanation But God demonstrates His own love toward us, in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us. (Rom 5:8)The High Priest performed the rites of atonement - Christ “a High Priest over the house of God” (Heb 10:21)He performed it alone – “Nor is there salvation in any other, for there is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved.” (Act 4:12)He removed his glorious festive robes - “but made Himself of no reputation, taking the form of a bondservant, and coming in the likeness of men. 8 And being found in appearance as a man, He humbled Himself and became obedient to the point of death, even the death of the cross.” (Phil 2:7-8)He washed to be purified – “Permit it to be so now, for thus it is fitting for us to fulfill all righteousness.” (Matt 3:15)
30The Great Day of Atonement - Explanation He offered much incense to cover the mercy seat, least he dies – sin separated us from God and we can not behold Him –“Whoever abides in Him does not sin. Whoever sins has neither seen Him nor known Him.” (1Jn 3:6)“My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?” (Matt 27:46)The high priest himself was human and sinful and must also atone for himself, but Christ was perfect without sin – “For the law appoints as high priests men who have weakness, but the word of the oath, which came after the law, appoints the Son who has been perfected forever.” (Heb 7:28)Aaron was the priest of the Old Testament of the Law, but Christ is the “priest forever, according to the order of Melchizedek” (Heb 5:6)
31The Perfect SacrificeThe great day of Atonement – The day of CrucifixionDespite all the daily sacrifices and even the sacrifices of great day of Atonement, complete atonement was not achieved except though the sacrifice of Christ:“For on the one hand there is an annulling of the former commandment because of its weakness and unprofitableness, for the law made nothing perfect” (Heb 7:18-19)But Christ perfected all – once!“…But Christ came as High Priest of the good things to come, with the greater and more perfect tabernacle not made with hands, that is, not of this creation. Not with the blood of goats and calves, but with His own blood He entered the Most Holy Place once for all, having obtained eternal redemption.” (Heb 9:6-12)