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How words diverge from a common root

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Presentation on theme: "How words diverge from a common root"— Presentation transcript:

1 How words diverge from a common root
Indo-European Roots How words diverge from a common root

2 Similarities Between Languages
Chance/Accidental Universal Features of Human Language -ex. Cuckoo and ruff Borrowings -ex. Tortilla -ex. Latin ad nauseum -ex. Greek agora

3 Comparative Method “One fact and one hypothesis”
- Fact: Similarities between certain languages are so numerous that there must be another explanation. - Hypothesis: These languages must derive from a common ancestor. “Genetically related”

4 “Daughter-in-law” Sanskrit: snusaa* Old English: snoru
Old Church Slavonic: snǔkha Russian: snokhá Latin: nurus Greek: nuós Armenian: nu

5 The First Consonant(s)

6 First Vowel

7 Consonant following Vowel

8 Ending

9 Accent

10 *snusos = ‘daughter-in-law’
Comparative method explains differences in forms through reconstruction of a prototype No single language in the Indo-European family preserves word intact from the Proto-Indo-European Cultural significance

11 Steps of the Comparative Method
1) Assemble cognate lists 2) Establish correspondence sets 3) Discover complements 4) Reconstruct proto-phonemes 5) Examine the reconstructed system

12 Proto-Indo-European PIE roots don’t always resemble modern English
2,000+ IE root words

13 Root: ar- Meaning: to fit together Derivatives: Army Hatred Harmony
Inert Aristocracy Adorn Hatred Rite Arithmetic Rhyme

14 Guess the PIE root Tory Pursuit Rodeo Rotary Rotate Roulette Control

15 Ret - To run, roll 1) rota – Latin, wheel 2) rotundus – Latin, round

16 Can You Guess the Modern Words?

17 To Fart Old English: feortan Germanic: fertan Sanskrit: pard
Lithuanian: perdzu Russian: perdet To break wind To fool around; To fritter away

18 Partridge Middle English: partrich Old French: perdriz Greek: perdix
Portuguese: perdiz Italian: perdice “They include primarily the 40 to 45 species of the genera Perdix, Alectoris, and Francolinus” ( Perdix=Genera The taxonomical ranking OED: perh the noise made by the bird as it flies away

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