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Indo-European Roots How words diverge from a common root.

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Presentation on theme: "Indo-European Roots How words diverge from a common root."— Presentation transcript:

1 Indo-European Roots How words diverge from a common root

2 Similarities Between Languages ► Chance/Accidental ► Universal Features of Human Language -ex. Cuckoo and ruff ► Borrowings -ex. Tortilla -ex. Latin ad nauseum -ex. Greek agora

3 Comparative Method ► “One fact and one hypothesis” - Fact: Similarities between certain languages are so numerous that there must be another explanation. - Hypothesis: These languages must derive from a common ancestor.

4 “Daughter-in-law” ► Sanskrit: snusaa* ► Old English: snoru ► Old Church Slavonic: sn ǔ kha ► Russian: snokhá ► Latin: nurus ► Greek: nuós ► Armenian: nu

5 The First Consonant(s) *sn ‘sn’ SanskritOld EnglishOld ChurchRussian ‘n’ LatinGreekArmenian Commonly drop the ‘s’ before the ‘n’

6 First Vowel *snu ‘u’ LatinGreekArmenianSanskrit ‘ǔ’ Slavic Connected to Sanskrit ‘u’ ‘o’ Germanic Traced to Earlier ‘u’ No consonant GreekArmenian Drop consonant after

7 Consonant following Vowel *snus ‘ş’ Sanskrit Traced to an Earlier ‘s’ after ‘u’ ‘kh’ RussianSlavic Traced back to an ‘s’ ‘r’ LatinOld English Rule: ‘s’ is converted to ‘r’ after vowel No consonant GreekArmenian Drop ‘s’ Between vowels

8 Ending *snusos (f) ‘os’ LatinGreekArmenian Irregular fem. Inherited irr. ‘a’ Sanskrit Old English Slavic Feminine Removed irr.

9 Accent *snusós Last syllable SanskritGreekSlavicGerman

10 *snusos = ‘daughter-in-law’ ► Comparative method explains differences in forms through reconstruction of a prototype ► No single language in the Indo-European family preserves word intact from the Proto- Indo-European ► Cultural significance

11 Steps of the Comparative Method ► 1) Assemble cognate lists ► 2) Establish correspondence sets ► 3) Discover complements ► 4) Reconstruct proto-phonemes ► 5) Examine the reconstructed system

12 Proto-Indo-European ► PIE roots don’t always resemble modern English ► 2,000+ IE root words

13 Root: ar- ► Meaning: to fit together ► Derivatives: ► Army ► Harmony ► Inert ► Aristocracy ► Adorn ► Hatred ► Rite ► Arithmetic ► Rhyme

14 Guess the PIE root ► Tory ► Pursuit ► Rodeo ► Rotary ► Rotate ► Roulette ► Control ► Prune

15 Ret - ► To run, roll ► 1) rota – Latin, wheel ► 2) rotundus – Latin, round

16 Can You Guess the Modern Words? THE ROOT PERD-

17 To Fart Old English: feortan Germanic: fertan Sanskrit: pard Lithuanian: perdzu Russian: perdet 1. To break wind 2. To fool around; To fritter away

18 Partridge Middle English: partrich Old French: perdriz Greek: perdix Portuguese: perdiz Italian: perdice Greek: perdix “They include primarily the 40 to 45 species of the genera Perdix, Alectoris, and Francolinus” (www.4to40.com). Perdix=Genera The taxonomical ranking OED: perh the noise made by the bird as it flies away


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