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{ Management of the Weed Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) in Eastern and Southern Africa Using Integrated Cultural and Biological Measures October.

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Presentation on theme: "{ Management of the Weed Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) in Eastern and Southern Africa Using Integrated Cultural and Biological Measures October."— Presentation transcript:

1 { Management of the Weed Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) in Eastern and Southern Africa Using Integrated Cultural and Biological Measures October 1, 2005 to Sept 30, 2009 Abating the Weed Parthenium Damage in Eastern Africa Using Integrated Cultural and Biological Control Measures October 1, 2009 to Sept 30, 2014 Management of the Weed Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) in Eastern and Southern Africa Using Integrated Cultural and Biological Measures October 1, 2005 to Sept 30, 2009 Abating the Weed Parthenium Damage in Eastern Africa Using Integrated Cultural and Biological Control Measures October 1, 2009 to Sept 30, 2014 EIAR

2 Partners Virginia State University Virginia Tech Ethiopia Haramaya University Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research Mekelle University Kenya – National Museums Tanzania – PAMS Foundation Uganda – Makerere University South Africa – ARC-PPRI Australia – University of Queensland Virginia State University Virginia Tech Ethiopia Haramaya University Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research Mekelle University Kenya – National Museums Tanzania – PAMS Foundation Uganda – Makerere University South Africa – ARC-PPRI Australia – University of Queensland

3 Parthenium is native to Central America. It has spread to Africa, Australia, South America and Southern Asia. The plant is an aggressive invader:   A single plant can produce 25,000 seeds.   It can complete its life cycle 6-8 weeks.   It releases toxic chemicals. Parthenium: a weed known in Ethiopia as “Faramasissa,” meaning “sign your land away”

4 competes with pasture species taints meat and milk causes human health problems displaces native plants Impact of Parthenium reduces crop yield

5 To develop an integrated weed management system that reduces the adverse impact of parthenium on humans, crops, livestock and plant biodiversity in the east African region. Goal of the Project

6 The project aims to: 1)Collect accurate information on the distribution and spread of parthenium in Kenya and Tanzania, with follow-up surveys in Ethiopia and Uganda; 2)Evaluate and demonstrate best management practices for the control of parthenium; 3)Evaluate parthenium biocontrol agents for their safety in respect to non-target plant species; and 4)Release and evaluate the impact of approved biocontrol agents for the control of parthenium. Specific Project Objectives

7  Mechanical  Chemical  Biological  Integrated Parthenium Weed Management Methods of Parthenium Management Dr. R.D. Gautam, Indian Agricultural Research Institute

8  Relatively cheap  Self-perpetuating – permanent  Environmentally friendly  No cost to the farmer  No pest resistance problem Advantages of Biological Control

9  Secure permit to introduce bioagents for evaluation  Establish a quarantine facility  Train staff  Identify test plants and conduct host-range evaluation  Secure permit to release  Build rearing facility and increase bioagent population Needed Steps for Biological Control

10 Establish a Quarantine Facility

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14  Host-range test of Zygogramma was conducted on 27 species in Ethiopia.  Zygogramma was found to be safe.  Host-range test of Zygogramma was conducted on 27 species in Ethiopia.  Zygogramma was found to be safe. Photos by Kassahun Zewdie Received Permit to Introduce Two Biological Agents (Zygogramma and Listronotus) for Host-Range Test Under Quarantine

15 Post Release Evaluation Plan to Evaluate the Impact of Biological Agent Zygogramma bicolorata L. on the Invasive Weed-Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) May 2014 Table of contents Introduction …………………………………………………………………………. 3 The invasive weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L)……………..…… … 3 The bioagent (Zygogramma bicolorata L)…………………..………...…. 5 Project objective and scope……………………………………………….……… 6 Identification of appropriate bioagents ………………………………….. 6 Development of quarantine facilities …………………………………..…. 6 Introduction of the bioagents …………………………………………… Studies under quarantine conditions ……………………………………..7 Preparation for the release of the bioagent ………………………………7 Rearing and multiplication of the bioagent ……………………… Release of Z. bicolorata L. ………………………………………………… Selection of release sites …………………………………………………….8 Release around Wollinchitti ……………………………………. …..8 Release in range or waste land around Metehara ……………….9 Establishment of release plots ………………………………………………9 Open fields around Wollinchitti and Metehara…………………….9 Caged (experimental) plots at Wollinchitti…………………………9 Infestation of parthenium with the bioagent ……………………………..10 Open fields around Wollinchittii and Metehara ………… Caged (experimental) plots at Wollinchitti ………………………..11 Impact assessment …………………………………………………………………..11 Pre-release baseline evaluation ……………………………………………..11 Monitoring establishment and spread ……………………………………..11 Measuring impacts …………. ………………………………………………...11 Assessment approaches and parameters …………………………………12 Recommendations ………………………………………………………… References …………………………………………………………………………….16 Appendices …………………………………………………………………

16 From Lorraine W. Strathie  Larvae tunnel in stems and pupate in soil.  Suitable for seasonally dry regions.  Host range tests were conducted on nineteen major crops and eleven plants closely related to parthenium.  Safe for release.  Larvae tunnel in stems and pupate in soil.  Suitable for seasonally dry regions.  Host range tests were conducted on nineteen major crops and eleven plants closely related to parthenium.  Safe for release. Listronotus setosipennis stem-borer

17 Release Permits Zygogramma Listronotus

18 Increase Bioagent Colony  Establish collaboration with farmers, local ag bureau and extension agents  Secure a rearing site  Recruit and train staff

19 Mass Rearing Centre at Wollenchiti Central Ethiopia Toilet / wash facilities Shed – tools Food area Water tank – l 10 m 5 m Perimeter fence - security 7 m 30 m 5 m Andrew McConnachie

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21 Project Supported Seven Students to Get Their M.S. Degrees Ms. Shashie Ayele Mr. Kuma Ebissa Mr. Asresie Hassen Mr. Shitaye Terefe Edessa Ms. Shashie Ayele Mr. Kuma Ebissa Mr. Asresie Hassen Mr. Shitaye Terefe Edessa Shashie Ayele Kuma Ebissa Asresie Hassen Shitaye Terefe Edessa Sheleme Beyera Betehelim Hiskias Firehiwot Megersa

22 Trained Five Ethiopian Scientists in South Africa on Quarantine Facility Management Photos from Lorainne Strathie

23 Produced Posters on the Effects of Parthenium on Human Health

24 Created a Network of Scientists from Australia, India, USA, and Eastern and Southern Africa Devoted to Abating the Adverse Impact of Parthenium Created a Network of Scientists from Australia, India, USA, and Eastern and Southern Africa Devoted to Abating the Adverse Impact of Parthenium Dec 2009 at Ambo

25 K. Dhileepan & R.C. McFadyen Potential New Agents  Smicronyx lutulentus: Seed-feeding weevil  Carmenta nr. Ithacae: Clear-wing moth whose larvae feed on roots Recommendations for the Future Additional bioagents will be needed for effective management of parthenium.

26 Scale-up the Release of Bioagents in Ethiopia and Build Capacity Establish rearing sites  Northern Ethiopia  Central Ethiopia  Eastern Ethiopia Build Human Capacity  Train staff to: manage and operate a quarantine facility; rear and spread bioagents; and monitor post-release performance of bioagent  Train M.S. students in weed science ERITREA Climex prediction of Zygogramma bicolorata in Ethiopia Parthenium presence Andrew McConnachie

27 Post-Release Evaluation  Pre-release data – soil seed bank, above ground  Establishment, persistence and spread of the bioagent  Damage to parthenium by the bioagent  Measure impact – crop yield, pasture recovery, native vegetation

28 Collaborate with Partner Countries to Control Parthenium  Share experience in establishing a quarantine facility  Provide starter colony of bioagents  Assist in host-range evaluation  Assist in mass rearing of bioagents

29 This research was made possible through support provided by the United States Agency for International Development and the generous support of the American people through USAID Cooperative Agreement NO. EPP-A , under the terms of the Integrated Pest Management Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM CRSP).


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